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Unformatted text preview: Database System Concepts, 5 th Ed. ©Silberschatz, Korth and Sudarshan See www.dbbook.com for conditions on reuse Chapter 2: Relational Model Chapter 2: Relational Model ©Silberschatz, Korth and Sudarshan 2.2 Database System Concepts  5 th Edition, Oct 5, 2006 Chapter 2: Relational Model Chapter 2: Relational Model ■ Structure of Relational Databases ■ Fundamental RelationalAlgebraOperations ■ Additional RelationalAlgebraOperations ■ Extended RelationalAlgebraOperations ■ Null Values ■ Modification of the Database ©Silberschatz, Korth and Sudarshan 2.3 Database System Concepts  5 th Edition, Oct 5, 2006 Example of a Relation Example of a Relation ©Silberschatz, Korth and Sudarshan 2.4 Database System Concepts  5 th Edition, Oct 5, 2006 Basic Structure Basic Structure ■ Formally, given sets D 1 , D 2 , …. D n a relation r is a subset of D 1 x D 2 x … x D n Thus, a relation is a set of ntuples ( a 1 , a 2 , …, a n ) where each a i ∈ D i ■ Example: If ● customer_name = {Jones, Smith, Curry, Lindsay, …} /* Set of all customer names */ ● customer_street = {Main, North, Park, …} /* set of all street names*/ ● customer_city = {Harrison, Rye, Pittsfield, …} /* set of all city names */ Then r = { (Jones, Main, Harrison), (Smith, North, Rye), (Curry, North, Rye), (Lindsay, Park, Pittsfield) } is a relation over customer_name x customer_street x customer_city ©Silberschatz, Korth and Sudarshan 2.5 Database System Concepts  5 th Edition, Oct 5, 2006 Attribute Types Attribute Types ■ Each attribute of a relation has a name ■ The set of allowed values for each attribute is called the domain of the attribute ■ Attribute values are (normally) required to be atomic ; that is, indivisible ● E.g. the value of an attribute can be an account number, but cannot be a set of account numbers ■ Domain is said to be atomic if all its members are atomic ■ The special value null is a member of every domain ■ The null value causes complications in the definition of many operations ● We shall ignore the effect of null values in our main presentation and consider their effect later ©Silberschatz, Korth and Sudarshan 2.6 Database System Concepts  5 th Edition, Oct 5, 2006 Relation Schema Relation Schema ■ A 1 , A 2 , …, A n are attributes ■ R = ( A 1 , A 2 , …, A n ) is a relation schema Example: Customer_schema = ( customer_name, customer_street, customer_city ) ■ r ( R ) denotes a relation r on the relation schema R Example: customer (Customer_schema) ©Silberschatz, Korth and Sudarshan 2.7 Database System Concepts  5 th Edition, Oct 5, 2006 Relation Instance Relation Instance ■ The current values ( relation instance ) of a relation are specified by a table ■ An element t of r is a tuple , represented by a row in a table Jones Smith Curry Lindsay customer_name Main North North Park customer_street Harrison Rye Rye Pittsfield customer_city customer attributes (or columns) tuples (or rows) ©Silberschatz, Korth and Sudarshan...
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This note was uploaded on 02/17/2010 for the course CAS 6M03 taught by Professor Franek during the Spring '10 term at McMaster University.
 Spring '10
 Franek

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