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L6 - where • F is the magnitude of the gravitational...

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10/13/09 Hubble – universe is expanding Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation 1) Everything in the universe that has mass pulls on everything in the universe with mass (and everything is pulling on it too). Gravitational force is always positive with the same constant G everywhere To get negative gravitational force, you need negative mass (rare) 2) The strength of the gravitational force is higher for more massive objects. F is directly proportional to the product of the 2 masses “Surface Gravity” – acceleration due to gravity on the surface of a planet where: M is the mass of the object, r is its radius, and G is the gravitational constant. 3) The gravitational strength increases as objects get closer together
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Unformatted text preview: where: • F is the magnitude of the gravitational force between the two point masses, • G is the gravitational constant (Newton’s), • m 1 is the mass of the first point mass, • m 2 is the mass of the second point mass, and • r is the distance between the two point masses. (r can also be d) **Note: F is more sensitive to distance due to the inverse square law • F is inversely proportional to the square of the separation IMPORTANT: Mass of Moon = 7.4 x 10 22 kg Diameter of Moon = 1,700 km Mass of Earth = 6.0 x 10 24 kg Diameter of Earth = 6,400 km mM / mE = 0.012 rM / rE = 0.27...
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