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Unformatted text preview: 1. List and define the three components or stages of communication. Provide an example of how the environment can cause selection on the communication system in each of these three stages. 2. List the five sensory modalities that animals use in communication and provide an example of each. 1. Auditory- Ex.) Male swallows are known to emit false alarm calls when their paternity is threatened by extra pair copulations (EPCs). When there is an alarm call, all the birds will take flight therefore breaking up any potential EPCs that might have been taking place. The male will emit these calls if he returns to the nest and finds his mate missing. 2. Visual - Ex.) Cuttlefish change colors. Many species use color change to indicate aggressive intent. Color change can communicate thread without the attendant need to engage in actual combat. 3. Electrical- Ex.) Weakly electric fish are found in habitats with murky and silty rivers where vision is not a particularly useful sense. South American wave fish generate EODs of certain frequencies in order to distinguish species and sexual dimorphism. Males usually discharge electric frequencies at a lower frequency than females in each of these species except in the brown ghost wave fish where males are higher in frequency. 4. Chemical - Pheromonal cues- Ex.) Leaf cutter ants (genus Atta) use chemical cues during foraging. Leaf-cutter ants will use pheromonal cues to indicate food sources over a long distance. Two chemicals, methyl 4 methylpyrrole2-carboxylate and 3-ethyl-2, 5 dimethylpyrazine, are important for communicating long distance foraging information. These pheromones are deposited along trails leading to trees where leaves are being harvested. 5. Vibratory- Ex.) Leaf cutter ants (genus Atta) also use vibrational cues during foraging. They will stridulate their gasters, producing vibrations. These vibrations are sent along the length of the leaf and provide information about the quality of the leaves to other foragers. 40% of ants will stridulate when cutting tough leaves. 70% ants stridulate when cutting tender leaves. However, when either tough or tender leaves have been dipped in sugar water, 100% of ants stridulate. 3. Explain each of the four communication systems found in bee colonies. Be sure to discuss the species that use each system, what information is communicated, and how this information is transmitted. How does foraging distance and colony size vary in these groups?...
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- Spring '08