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Topic 24 & 25 - Topic 24 1 Liver Anatomy Location...

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Topic 24 1. Liver Anatomy Location - in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen in the peritoneal space just below the right diaphragm and the upper rib cage. It weighs approx. 1400g in the adult and is covered by fibrous capsule. Though this was a good picture Blood Flow- receives nearly 25% of the blood from the heart venous flow from branches of the hepatic portal vein arterial flow from branches of the hepatic artery blood comes together in the liver sinusoids and exits via central veins within sinusoids there are large gaps between endothelial cells which allows close contact between plasma and liver cells ( hepatocytes) . Anchored to endothelial cells of the liver sinusoids are many Kupfer cells (Macrophages of the RES system). Organization- Organized in lobules of hepatic plates (organized around individual central veins) The hepatocytes are arranged in plates of single cells lying in a cage of supporting cells Bile canniculi are fine tubular canals that run between hepatocytes, usually occurring singly between adjacent pair of cells and forming a 3-dimensional networkof polyhedral meshes Major Functions- Energy Metabolism and substrate interconversion> gluconeogenesis, glycogenolysis etc. Protein synthesis > plasma proteins, albumin, clotting factors, binding proteins, ANG etc. Solubilization of fats and fat-soluble vitamins in bile for uptake by enterocytes Protection > detoxifies ammonia through urea cycle, clearance of bacteria and antigens Look at page 945 for more- test will only ask about 3-4 functions 2. Bile is a fluid secreted by the liver which is poured into the small intestine via the bile ducts.
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It is made by the liver hepatocytes, collected by the bile cannaculi and drained into the hepatic bile ducts, the common bile duct, and then into the duodenum. It is stored in the gall bladder between meals. 90-95% of the bile salts are reabsorbed from the small intestine and are transported back to the liver in the portal vein and excreted into the bile again (enterohepatic circulation). 3. Cholecystitus- is an infection/inflammation of the gallbladder. It is usually caused by a gallstone in the cystic duct, the duct that connects the gallbladder to the hepatic duct but it may also be caused by other reasons such as, a bacterial infection in the bile duct system.
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