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study guide for exam 1

study guide for exam 1 - Journalism History Study Guide...

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Journalism History Study Guide Nota bene: There are some omissions. Some names are not on the study guide. There are also some repeated names. There are also a few misspelled words. But, these are the majority of names and things that will be on the test. Media 1: Origins of Mass Communication Pictographic Ideographic Phonetic Sumerians Hieroglyphic - a word with Greek origins, literally means "sacred carved letters" / used mainly for religious display / found on written documents on papyrus / apparently had some secular applications / remained a secret and sacred writing used mainly by priests / mix of ideograms, phonograms, other phonetic elements. Hieratic - everyday use in business, letters, medical texts, literary works / used for both secular and religious writing. Demotic - meaning people / used in mundane business / combined whole groups of hieroglyphics into a single sign and used a mixture of picture and sound signs Phoenicians - Chinese Writing and Printing - Pe-Sheng - Crete - the site of one of the great mysteries in the development of printing / people began writing in a pictorial script that was replaced by 2 kinds of linear script after 1700 B.C. / writing read left to right Parchment - came into use after 200 B.C. / made by bleaching goat or sheep skin and rubbing the surface smooth / long lasting / held ink without smearing / used on both sides / rolled up or bound into a book Acta Diurna - daily acts (or occurences) of the Roman people / survived for at least 2 centuries / forerunner of the modern newspaper / developed from 3 predecessors Acta Senatus - diliberations of the Roman Senate were kept in these official records / contained mostly speeches and opinions of senators / kept in archieves where senators could read them / date from 449 B.C. Julius Ceasar - began Acta Diurna in 59 B.C. / official daily publication at first / covered gov business and general info about going-ons in Rome / posted each day in popular places / no copies have survived Augustus - put into operation a worldwide system for the dissemination of info and propaganda / used monetary system to disseminate messages / controlled every element of Roman coinage = manipulate public opinion / among history's most sucsessful propagandists Volume - Monte Cassino - prolific period of monastic copying of manuscripts began with the founding of the Monte Cassino in Italy by St. Benedict in 529 Scriptorium - literally "a place for writing", is commonly used to refer to a room in medieval European monasteries devoted to the copying of manuscripts by monastic scribes . Johan Gutenberg - generally credited with the creation of movable type printing -- the process that made it possible to publish many copies of a single work at one time. Much of Gutenberg's
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life is shrouded in mystery, and his name does not appear in any of the printed works attributed to him. He was a goldsmith early in life, and that training apparently led him to the notion of forming molten metal into individual characters of the alphabet, which could then be inked and pressed on paper. His most famous work was the Gutenberg Bible, an elaborate two-volume
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