Study Guide for SOC

Study Guide for SOC - Myth Sociological imagination Ability...

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Myth – Sociological imagination – Ability to see the relationship between individual experiences and the larger society Helps us distinguish between personal troubles and social (or public) issues Personal troubles = private problems that affect individuals and the networks of people with which they regularly associate o Ex. = overspending Public issues = problems that affect large numbers of people and often require solutions at the societal level o Ex. = overspending – relationship between credit card debt and low savings rate in US ; rate of bankruptcies ; poverty High-income counties – Nations with highly industrialized economies, high levels of national and personal income Ex. = US, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, Countries of Western Europe Have a high standard of living and lower death rates Middle-income countries – Nations with industrializing economies Urban areas Moderate levels of national and personal income Ex. = nations of Eastern Europe, many Latin American countries Low-income countries – Countries are primarily agrarian Little industrialization Low levels of national and personal income Ex. = nations of Africa and Asia (China and India) Race/Ethnicity – Race - specifies groups of people distinguished by physical characteristics such as skin color Ethnicity – refers to cultural heritage or identity of a group of people and is based on factors such as language or country of origin Origins of Sociology – Born out of the enlightenment – emphasis placed on the individual’s possession of critical reasoning and experience Stirred up political and economic revolutions in American and France
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Founder/ period – August Comte = founder of sociology Comte’s philosophy became known as positivism – a belief that the world can best be understood through scientific inquiry Comte believed objective, bias-free knowledge was attainable only through science Societies contain social statics (forces for social order and stability) and social dynamics (forces for conflict and change) Urbanization/industrialization – (started at same time) Urbanization – an increasing proportion of a population lives in cities rather than rural areas o Living and working conditions lead to new social problems, inadequate housing, crowding, unsanitary conditions, poverty, pollution, crime o Wages = extremely low Industrialization – process by which societies are transformed from dependence on agriculture to manufacturing and related industries o First occurred during Industrial Revolution (1760 – 1850) Anomie/ Solidarity – Anomie – condition in which social control becomes ineffective as a result of the loss of shared values and of a sense of purpose in society o Most likely to occur during a period of rapid social change Solidarity – Functionalist/conflict perspective – Functionalist – views society as a stable, orderly system
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Study Guide for SOC - Myth Sociological imagination Ability...

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