Review1-1 - EXAM 1 REVIEW SPRING 2010 Master subtitle style...

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Click to edit Master subtitle style 2/18/10 EXAM 1 REVIEW SPRING 2010
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2/18/10 The Sociological Imagination The ability to see the relationship between individual experiences and the larger society Distinguishes between personal troubles and social issues
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2/18/10 Personal Troubles Personal troubles are private problems that affect individuals and the networks of people with which they associate regularly l Example: One person being unemployed or running up a high credit card debt could be identified as a personal trouble
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2/18/10 Public Issues Public issues are problems that affect large numbers of people and require solutions at the societal level l Widespread unemployment and massive, nationwide consumer debt are examples of public issues
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2/18/10 High Income Countries Nations with highly industrialized economies; technologically advanced industrial, administrative, and service occupations l Examples: United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, and Western Europe Have a high standard of living and a lower death rate due to advances in nutrition and medical technology
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2/18/10 Middle Income Countries Nations with industrializing economies, particularly in urban areas, and moderate levels of national and personal income l Example: The nations of Eastern Europe and many Latin American countries
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2/18/10 Low Income Countries Primarily agrarian nations with little industrialization and low levels of national and personal income l Examples: Many of the nations of Africa and Asia, particularly the People’s Republic of China and India, where people typically work the land and are among the poorest in the world
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2/18/10 Definitions Race is used to specify groups of people distinguished by physical characteristics such as skin color l There are no “pure” racial types, and race is considered by most sociologists to be a social construction people use to justify social inequalities Ethnicity refers to the cultural heritage or identity of a group and is based on factors such as language or country of origin
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2/18/10 Sociology and the Age of Revolution, Industrialization, and Urbanization The Enlightenment produced an intellectual revolution in how people thought about social change, progress, and critical thinking Views of the philosophers regarding equal opportunity stirred political and economic revolutions in America and France The Industrial Revolution occurred in the 19th and 20th centuries, when economic, technological, and social changes occurred as technology shifted from agriculture to manufacturing
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2/18/10 Sociology and the Age of Revolution, Industrialization, and Urbanization Industrialization is the process by which societies are transformed from dependence on agriculture and handmade products to an emphasis on manufacturing and related industries.
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