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Lin306_Guide1-Ver_FINAL - LIN 306 Study guide for Test 1...

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LIN 306: Study guide for Test 1 Version: FINAL! Generalities The following are things you should know and understand for the October 3 test. You can expect mainly short-answer questions, including multiple choice, fill-in-the-blanks, true-false, matching, and tree-drawing. There will be a focus on concepts, terminology, and analysis of data. Your best study strategies will be to: Read the relevant text chapters Look over your class notes—you are responsible for what went on in class, some of which is not in the book Get with each other : It helps to study with somebody Get with us during our office hours or after class. We can help you and we want you to learn and do well! Introduction This will be about 1/10 of the test. Be sure you know and understand: Linguistics is about mental grammar and mental lexicon , that is, it’s about what each individual native speaker tacitly (unconsciously) knows in order to produce and understand natural language utterances. “Language is in your head!” Be able to say how your recognition of “grammatical” vs. “ungrammatical” instances of colloquial-English like (as on the class handout) provide an argument in favor of the idea that we each carry around in our heads a grammar for our own everyday use of English. Prescriptive vs. descriptive grammars (and teaching grammars ). Also, be able to recognize a prescriptive rule (as in problem 9). Grammaticality and grammaticality judgments : You should be able to use your intuitions to decide if an English sentences is grammatical or ungrammatical. (If you are not a native speaker of English, we’ll take that into account on the test, don’t worry.) American Sign Language . What it is, when it originated, and why it is considered as a full-fledged natural human language. Universal grammar : the underlying core of similarities among all languages which may therefore be biologically built-in to all healthy humans The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis . Know what this is (it has several versions); and remember that what Whorf really meant was that our casual, everyday thinking is sometimes influenced by patterns in our language (remember the fire insurance inspection examples from the Whorf handout that we considered in class.) The branches of grammar: phonology (sound systems); morphology (word structure); syntax (phrase and sentence structure); semantics (linguistic meaning of morphemes, words, phrases, and sentences) The list of facts on pp. 28-29 (“What we know about language”). Know these well enough that you could answer true/false questions based on them. For practice, see if you can find the Characteristics of human language listed in the study guide for “Biology of language” just below.
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Lin 306, Test1 Study Guide, page 2 You do not need to pay special attention to the section on animal languages, although it will help you in gaining awareness of the special characteristics of human language.
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