The following are things you should know and understand for the December 5 test. You can
expect mainly short-answer questions, including multiple choice, fill-in-the-blanks, true-false,
and matching. There will be a focus on concepts, terminology, and analysis of data.
study tools will be:
Read the assigned text, chapters 10, 11, 12 and the articles by King and Rickford
Look over your class notes and handouts—you are responsible for what went on in class,
some of which is not in the book
Look over the assignments that you did—they are a good guide to what to expect on the
analytic portions of the test
: It helps to study with somebody
during our office hours or after class. We can help you and we
want you to
learn and do well!
This will be about 40% of the test. Be sure you know and understand:
(like all social science) is concerned with (a) What people do; (b) What
they do; and (c) What people
These are not the same. With
respect to language, (a) would be called
while (b) and (c) would be
Be familiar with the concept as set out in the quotation by John
Gumperz on the class handout. Remember that everyone belongs to overlapping speech
communities based on such factors as geography, age, occupation, ethnicity, family
networks, and others.
as the notion relates to
Pidgins and creoles.
Be aware of what they are and of their status as "mixed languages"
(having most of their vocabulary from a colonial language but some grammar and other
features from local languages).
were what arose when colonizing and
colonized groups came in contact for the first time, whereas a
is the development
of a pidgin into a primary local language that is learned natively by children.
The notion of
, and the focus continuum, as set out in the handout on focus with the
quotation from Le Page and Tabouret-Keller on the class handout. In particular be aware
ad hoc communication, Pidgins
established languages and speech
as steps along this continuum. Focus is a matter of the amount of
established common ground
that people have for communication—very little in the
case of ad hoc communication, and quite a lot in the case of an established speech
community. Also, the relation of focus to personal and ethnic
in the formation
and maintenance of
Understand the idea that language is
; and that humans generally react to
(in your guts!).
This helps explain why people maintain
linguistic differences (or, if they chose, reshape their speech as a way of reshaping their
social and personal identity.) Also, be aware of the role of
in people's attitudes