psychmodule12

psychmodule12 - IntroductiontoSensation andPerception...

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1 Introduction to Sensation  and Perception Module 12
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2 Sensation Perception How do we construct our representations of the external  world? To represent the world, we must detect physical energy  (stimulus) from the environment and convert it into  neural signals, a process called  sensation. When we select, organize, and interpret our sensations,  the process is called  perception.
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3 Bottom-up Processing Analysis of the stimulus begins with the sense receptors  and works up to the level of the brain and mind. Letter “A” is sensed as a black blotch decomposed into  features by the brain and perceived as an “A” by our mind .
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4 Top-Down Processing Information processing guided by higher-level  mental processes as we construct perceptions  drawing on our experience and expectations. T H E C H T
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5 Our  sensory  and  perpetual processes work together to  help us sort out complex images. Making Sense of Complexity “The Forest Has Eyes,”  Bev Doolittle
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6 Psychophysics A study of the relationship between physical  characteristics of stimuli and our psychological  experience of them. Physical World Psychological  World Light Brightness Sound Volume Pressure Weight Sugar Sweet
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7 No Detection Intensity Absolute Threshold Detected Yes Yes No No Observer’s Response Tell when you (observer) detect the light.
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8 Thresholds Absolute Threshold :   Minimum stimulation needed to  detect a particular stimulus 50% of the time. Proportion of “Yes” Responses 0.00                 0.50                1.00              0            5            10           15          20          25                            Stimulus Intensity (lumens)
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9 Subliminal Threshold When stimuli are below  one’s absolute threshold  for conscious awareness. Kurt Scholz/ Superstock
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10 Difference Threshold ________________________ :  Minimum difference  between two stimuli required for detection 50% of  the time, also called just noticeable difference (JND). Difference Threshold Tell when you (observer) detect a difference in the light. No Observer’s Response No Yes
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Weber’s Law Two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum  percentage (rather than a constant amount), to be  perceived as different. Weber fraction: k =  δ I/I. Stimulus
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psychmodule12 - IntroductiontoSensation andPerception...

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