Population Genetics

Population Genetics - Population Genetics Tuesday, February...

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Lecture Topic: The change in gene frequencies in a population over a few generations Microevolution Phenylkentonia, PKU suffer lack of a single enzyme converts phenyalanine to tyrosine Build up causes severe mental retardation, caused by subsitution at single locus It is a simple monogenic traits (3 genotypes, 2 phenotypes) How to measure gene frequencies through time Mutation, Genetic drift, Gene flow, nonrandom mating, natural selection Mutations are mistakes in DNA replication, occurs when DNA is damaged by radiation, mutations alter DNA messages, much of DNA is noncoding What can lead to change of gene frequences in a population Random changes are the result of the nature of probability (earthquake) Very important when populations are small Founder Effect, small # of individuals that forms a new population from original larger population, may have differing gene frequencies than in former population Amish population, Ellis-van Creveld Syndrome Autosomal Recessive (chromosomes #4) Leads to short-limbed dwarfism, ploydactyly 200 people migrated from Europe Elephants decreased to 50, when their population regrew, genetic diversity was very similar, less diversity Genetic drift can lead to bottleneck effect, large diverse population undergoes rapid reduction in size and increases in size, genetic diversity is lost Genetic Drift New genes move into a population One surviving crew member ends up on island and becomes permanent resident, sired many offspring, blue eyes entered
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Population Genetics - Population Genetics Tuesday, February...

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