Acrylonitrile and vinyl chloride Synthesis

Acrylonitrile and vinyl chloride Synthesis - J an 010...

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Jan 010 ASSIGNMENT: Commercial process for manufacturing 1) Acrylonitrile 2) Vinyl-Chloride Process and Product Design From Carlos Sanchez Pedraza
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Rahul Patil Acrylonitrile Aspects of the Acrylonitrile: Introduction: Acrylonitrile or vinyl cyanide, CH2=CHCN is colorless liquid at ATP. It has slightly pungent odor (1) . Acrylonitrile is miscible with water and also with many organic solvents which includes, acetone, benzene, CCl 4 etc. Acrylonitrile undergoes wide range of chemical reactions and also forms azeotrope with most of solvents, as it has two active chemical sites, - Nitrile group and C=C double bond (2) . Physical Properties: Acrylonitrile has boiling point of 77.3 o C, freezing point of -83.5 o C, liquid density of 0.8060 g/cm 3 , dynamic viscosity as 0.34 mPa.s and surface tension (25 o C) 26.63 mN/m. at atmospheric pressure (1) . Safety Aspects: Acrylonitrile is flammable and poisonous liquid. It will be highly toxic if ingested and mildly toxic if inhaled. Acrylonitrile is categorized as a cancer hazard by Occupational Safety and Health Administration (3) . Acrylonitrile will polymerize violently in the absence of O 2 if heated, pressurized, light, peroxide, or strong acids and bases. The burning material releases fumes of hydrogen cyanide and oxides of nitrogen . Applications or Use as Raw material: Worldwide maximum amount ( > 56 % ) of Acrylonitrile is used as acrylic textile fibers . As acrylic fiber has good fiber strength , and low density , it is primarily used in wearing apparel and in home furnishings such as carpets and draperies (1) .
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The production of acrylonitrile – butadiene – styrene ( ABS ) and styrene – acrylonitrile (SAN) resins consumes the second largest quantity of acrylonitrile. These products are used to fabricate components for automotive and recreational vehicles, pipe fittings, and appliances (1) . Acrylamide is produced commercially by heterogeneous copper- catalyzed hydration of acrylonitrile . Acrylamide is used primarily in the form of a polymer, polyacrylamide, which is useful as frothing agent in paper industry and Enhanced Oil Recovery techniques (2) . The most growing specialty application for acrylonitrile is in the manufacture of carbon fibers. It is produced by pyrolysis of oriented polyacrylonitrile fibers and is used for high performance applications in the aircraft, defense, and aerospace industries (2) . Process Technology and Process conditions (2) : In 1947, Allied Chemical and Dye Corporation patented the manufacture of acrylonitrile via an ammoxidation process of propylene but it was not until 1960 when Standard Oil of Ohio (Sohio) developed the first commercially viable catalyst for this process. Today, over 90% of acrylonitrile production in the world is based on the Sohio process. In this process, propylene, oxygen, and ammonia are catalytically converted directly to acrylonitrile using a fluidized-bed reactor operated at temperatures between 400 o C and 510 o C and gauge pressures between 0.3 and 2 bar (2, 4) .
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