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Module 7 - 16:43 Objective 7-1 Embryos receive differing...

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16:43 Objective 7-1 Embryos receive differing nutrition and varying levels of exposure to toxic agents in the womb o Even identical twins may not receive prenatal nurture o 2/3 of identical twins share same placenta and a more similar prenatal environment o if separate placentas, one placenta may have a more advantageous placement that provides better nourishment/ better barrier against viruses twins that develop in separate placentas are somewhat less similar in psychological traits Objective 7-2 rats reared in an enriched environment with toys in a communal playground had heavier and thicker brain cortexes than those rats reared in solitary confinement stimulation of touch or massage benefits infant rats and premature babies…they gain weight more rapidly and develop faster neurologically after the brain matures and provides us with neural connections, experience preserves our activated connections while allowing our unused connections to degenerate o massive loss of unemployed connections = PRUNING o early childhood education is important because excess connections are still turned on- children can master grammar/accent of another language neural tissue continues to change as we age in response to nature and nurture o sights/smells/touch/tugs activate and strengthen some neural pathways while others weaken from disuse Objective 7-3 the power of parenting to shape our differences is clearest at the extremes- ex. abused children who become abusive the power of family environment also shows up in children’s political attitudes, religious beliefs, and personal manners personality measures, however, are only 10% affected by home influences Objective 7-4
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peer influence also contributes to development because we seek to establish ourselves to be accepted in various groups o preschoolers who dislike a certain food despite parents’ urging often will eat it if put at a table with a group of children who like it o children who hear English spoken with a certain accent at home and a different accent at school will adopt the accent of the peers o teens will start smoking if they have friends that constantly are offering cigarettes, despite parental influences parental influence occurs when parents help to select their children’s neighborhood and peers Objective 7-5 the mark of our species is the ability to learn and adapt human culture has been able to preserve innovation and makes use of division of labor despite differences within cultures (language, monetary system..), all humans have great similarities o capacity for shared and transmitted customs and beliefs that enable us to communicate, to exchange money, to play, to eat, and to drive with agreed-upon rules Objective 7-6 each culture develops its own norms- rules for expected and accepted behavior
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