Module 22 - 18:50 Objective 22-1 Through OPERANT...

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18:50 Objective 22-1 Through OPERANT CONDITIONING , organisms associate their own actions with consequences Behaviors followed by reinforcers increase; those followed by punishers decrease Classical conditioning forms associations between stimuli (CS and the US it signals) and also involves respondent behavior (an automatic response) Operant conditioning involves operant behavior…the behavior operates on the environment to produce rewarding or punishing stimuli We can distinguish classical from operant by asking: IS THE ORGANISM LEARNING ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN EVENTS THAT IT DOESN’T CONTROL? (classical) or… IS IT LEARNING ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN ITS BEHAVIOR AND RESULTING EVENTS? (operant) CLASSICAL OPERANT Basic idea Organism learns associations between events it doesn’t control Organism learns associations between its behavior and resulting events Acquisition Initial stage in which a neutral stimulus is associated with an unconditioned stimulus (US) and comes to elicit a conditioned response (CR) The strengthening of a reinforced response Extinction The diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs when a US does not follow a conditioned stimulus (CS) The elimination of a response that is no longer reinforced Spontaneous Recovery The reappearance, after a rest period, of an extinguished CR The reappearance, after a rest period, of an extinguished response Generalization The tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the CS to elicit similar responses Organism’s response to stimuli that signal that a behavior will be reinforced Discrimination The learned ability to distinguish between CS and other stimuli that do not signal US Organism’s response to stimuli that do not signal that a behavior will be reinforced
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Objective 22-2 Law of effect: rewarded behavior is likely to recur Skinner box (operant chamber) Box has a bar or key that an animal presses or pecks to release a reward of food or water Objective 22-3 Skinner used shaping - a procedure in which reinforcers, such as food, gradually guide an animal’s actions toward a desired behavior Successive approximations - you reward responses that are ever-closer to the final desired behavior, and you ignore all other responses Objective 22-4 Reinforcement - any event that strengthens, or increases the frequency of, a preceding response Positive reinforcer may be a tangible reward or praise/attention Anything that serves to increase behavior is a reinforcer- even being yelled at, if yelling increases a child’s offending behavior POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT- strengthens a response by presenting a typically
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This note was uploaded on 02/18/2010 for the course PSYCHOLOGY 101 taught by Professor Maas during the Fall '09 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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Module 22 - 18:50 Objective 22-1 Through OPERANT...

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