Module 30 - Module30 00:12 Objective 30-1 Three building...

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Module 30 00:12 Objective 30-1 Three building blocks of a language Phonemes - basic sounds (b-a-t= bat) Changes in phonemes produce changes in meaning (bat, bet, bit) Consonant phonemes carry more information than do vowel phonemes Sign language also has phoneme-like building blocks defined by hand shapes and movements Morpheme - the smallest unit of language that carries meaning Some morephemes are also phonemes- “I” and “a” Most morphemes are combinations of two or more phonemes Morphemes include prefixes and suffixes (pre + view) ( undesirables = un-desir-able-s) grammar - a system of rules (semantics and syntax) in a given language that enables us to communicate with and understand others semantics - the set of rules we use to derive meaning for morphemes, words, and sentences for ex. A semantic rule tells us that adding –ed to laugh means it happened in the past syntax - the rules we use to order words into sentences for ex. A syntax rules says adjectives usually come before nouns (white house) o Spanish adjectives usually come after nouns (casa Blanca) Language becomes more complex as you move from phoneme to morpheme to word to sentence Objective 30-2 Children’s language development mirrors language structure- it moves from simplicity to complexity Infants start without language…by 4 months, they can read lips and discriminate speech sounds (they do this by looking at faces that match a sound. ..ee = mouth corners pulled back) This marks the beginning of the development of babies’ receptive language - their ability to comprehend speech Babies receptive language abilities begin to mature before their productive language - their ability to produce words Babbling stage - 4 month old babies spontaneously utter a variety of sounds (ah-goo)
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Babbling is NOT an imitation of adult sounds Many of these natural babbling sounds are consonant-vowel pairs formed simply by bunching the tongue in front of the mouth (da-da, na-na, ta-ta) or by opening and closing the lips (ma-ma), both of which babies do for feeding One-word stage - around the first birthday, children enter this stage
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This note was uploaded on 02/18/2010 for the course PSYCHOLOGY 101 taught by Professor Maas during the Fall '09 term at Cornell.

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Module 30 - Module30 00:12 Objective 30-1 Three building...

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