Pugel_14_SG_Ch02 - CHAPTER 2 THE BASIC THEORY USING DEMAND...

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CHAPTER 2 THE BASIC THEORY USING DEMAND AND SUPPLY Objectives of the Chapter Chapter 2 sets up supply and demand for our basic trade model. It enables us to determine precisely the equilibrium relative price and equilibrium quantities traded, and the distribution of the gains from trade. Simply put, international trade occurs if Country A’s consumers find that they can purchase a good at a lower price in Country B than at home, or if Country J’s producers find that they can sell their goods at a higher price in Country K than at home. Abstracting from any barriers to trade, the international price of a good reaches equilibrium when aggregate world demand equals aggregate world supply, or when the quantity of imports demanded equals the quantity of exports supplied. Although both the importers of the good and the exporters of the good gain from the transaction (why else would they trade voluntarily?), it is not true that everyone gains or that all the winners enjoy equal gains from trade. Some groups will actually lose from the opening of trade: the consumers of the good in the export country (who now have to compete with the rest of the world’s buyers) and the domestic producers of the good in the import country (who now have to compete with the rest of the world’s producers). On net, however, we can show that the losses that these groups experience will be smaller than the gains enjoyed by their counterparts: home producers of the exported good and home consumers of the imported good. The division of the gains from trade between buyers and sellers will depend largely on how far the international price is from the pre-trade (or “autarkic”) price of the good. The farther the trade price is from one’s own pre-trade price, the larger one’s share of the gains. After studying Chapter 2, you should understand: 1. The basic theory of supply and demand and the concept of market equilibrium. 2.
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Pugel_14_SG_Ch02 - CHAPTER 2 THE BASIC THEORY USING DEMAND...

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