chandler coal graph - AN INQUIRY INTO THE NATURE AND CAUSES...

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Unformatted text preview: AN INQUIRY INTO THE NATURE AND CAUSES OF THE WEALTH OF NATIONS >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>,>>>>>>>>>>>>>»>>>>>>>>>>>>>§>>>>>>>>>> ' BY V ADAM SMITH EDITED, WITH- AN INTRODUCTION, NOTES, MARGrN‘hL SUMMARY AND AN ENLARGE!) INDEX“BY EDWIN CANNAN, M.A., LL.D. WITH AN INTRODUCTION BY MAX LERNER W»W>>>>)>>>>>>>>>>>>)»>>>>>>>>)W>>’r V V THE" MODERN LIBRARY NEW YORK N1 moon I, 0f the Causes 0/ Improvement in the pggductipe Power; of Labour, and o/ the Order according to whibh its Produce is naturally distributed among the diflerent Ranks of the People. CHAPTER ,1 OF THE DIVISION OF LABOUR 1 THE greatest‘improvement2 in the productive powers of labour, and the greater part of the skill, dexterity, and judgment with which it is any where directed, or- applied, seem to have been the effects of .the division of labour. The effects of the division of labour, in the general business of 1This phrase, if used at all before this time, was not a familiar one. Its presence here is probably due to a passage in Mandeville, Fable of the Bees, pt. ii. (I729) dial. vi., p. 335: “CLEO. . . . when once men come to be gov- erned by written laws, all the rest comes on apace . . . No number of men, when once they enjoy quiet, and no man needs to fear his neighbour, will ,be long without learning to divide and subdivide their labour. Hon. I don’t . understand you. CLEO. Man, as I have hinted before, naturally loves to im- itate‘what he sees others do, which is the reason that savage people all do the same thing: this hinders them from meliorating their condition, though they are always wishing for it: but if one will wholly apply himself to the making of bows and arrows, whilst another provides food, a third builds huts, a fourth makes garments, and a fifth utensils, they not only become useful to one another, but the callings and employments themseIVes will, in the same number of 'years, receive much greater improvements, than if all had been promiscuoust followed by every one of the five. HOR. I believe you are perfectly right there; and the truth of what you say is in nothing so conspicuous as it is in watch-making, which is come to a higher degree of perfection than it would have been arrived at yet, if the whole had always remained the employment of one person; and I am persuaded that even the plenty We have of clocks and watches, as well as the exactness and beauty they may be made of, are chiefly owing to the division that has been made of that art into many branches.” The index contains, “Labour, The useful- ness of dividing and subdividing it.” Joseph Harris, Essay upon Money and Coins, 1757, pt. i., § :2, treats of the “usefulness of distinct trades,” or “the advantages accruing to mankind from their betaking themselves severally to different occupations,” but does not use the phrase “division of labour.” “Ed. 1 reads “improvements.” 3 Division of labour is the ' great cause of THE WEALTH 0F NATIONS society, will be more easily understood, by considering in what manner it operates in some particular manufactures. It is com- monly supposed to be carried furthest in some very trifling ones; better un- d st d not perhaps that it really is carried further. in them than in others {$113) of more importance: but in those trifling manufactures which are particular destined to supply the sm wants 0 u a sm numb "Mormo- example, w WWW-mm WWWW ber f wdrkmen must necessarilywhé‘ all," and W ,fim..,¢»..w.~. WNW-m...” . MMWWW“ collected "into sfarriewworkhouse, 'aridw'placed'at once under the" view of west; ctator. 'Inwl‘those: great manufactures, On. the con- ftra'ry", which Vareyl‘des‘tined to supply the great wants of the great [ body of the people, every different branch of the work employs so i great a number of workmen, that it is impossible to collect them all into the same workhouse. We can seldom see more, at one time, 3 than those employed in one single branch. Though in such manu- 4 factures,3 therefore, the work may really be divided into a much greater number of parts, than in those of a more trifling nature, / the division is not near so obvious, and has accordingly been much iv less observed. . sucks-s To take an exam le therefore 4 from a ve triflin manufac- firm” ture; But on: in which the division of labour has been very £133 taken notice of Eli ' - ' cated to this business (which the division of labourwhflas‘rgpgegegma istmct tradtB):5 BMW ' the use of the machinery em- ployé'd'ifi it" (to the invention of which the same division of labour has probably given occasion‘YféofildMWi". "W" m-o—st industr , make One in W How not only the whole work is a peculiar trade ut it is divided into a W ,ow1cte greater 9W peculiar v tra es. One man draws out the wire another strai hts it ir cuts it, a our pomts it, a fifth rinds it at th ' ' g the head' to ma e t ' wo or three, distinct opera- tions; to put it on, is a peculiar business, to whiten the pins is an- Wby itself to put them into the paper Land the important business of making a pin isI in this manner, diyrded, into about ei hteen istrnct operations, which in some manufacto- ' Ed. 1 reads “Though in them.” ‘Another and perhaps more important reason for taking an example like that which follows is the possibility of exhibiting the advantages of division of labour in statistical form. ‘ This parenthesis would alone be sufficient to show that those are wrong who believe Smith did not include the separation of employments in “divi— sion of labour.” mmuw,m._._r~-» ent branch of thew'work‘can'oftenbe A not edu- 1 with’li‘is‘ut-m DIVISION OF LABOUR 5 ries, are all performed by distinct hands, though in others the same man w: sometimes perform two or three of them.6 I have seen a sm manu ac cry 0 this kind where ten men only wWEd‘, and where some of Them‘consegugntly performed two or threefiis- M tinct opéiatlons. But't ough the were very poor, and therefore but indifferentl accommodated with the necessary ma mery, may could, when they exerted themselves, make among them about u s W twelve, pounds of pins in a day. There are mm upwards of four thousand pins of amiddlmg'size. Those ten persons, therefore, Foil m e among them upwar s o forty-eight thousand pins in a. day. Each person therefore, making a tenth part 0 forty-eight thousand. pins, might 5e consrdere as making four thousand eight hun red pins. in a ay. WEE]; an. independent1X4..§&d nithgutany.gtthemshavjng.,been educated t9 tfiifiaeculiar business, thsxsgrtaiammnlénengaging heaters made twenty, perhapsth onepin inua dayj hat is, certainly, not thémfiigfififiaiediéag £95 ,r..p¢rhé9s nfdiéig‘fit ' hampfarf‘a’f what they are at present capable of performing, ) in consequence of a proper division and combination of their dif—/ ferent operations. I ' In every other art and manufacture, the effects of the division of Thai:ng labour are similar to what they are in this very trifling one; though, £2“ ' in many ofwthern,_thefllabour can neither be so much subdivided, nor trades {EdfiEed to so great a si plicitynof operation. The division of labour, fights; h0wever, so far as it can be introduced, occasions, in every art, a vision of proportionable increase of the productive powers of labour. The employ- men S. separation of different trades and employments from one another, seems to have taken place, in consequence of this advantageuThis separation too is generally carried furthest in those countries which , 9919!.EEEEJEEEEESW9,, Eirfiqstri‘fi work of one man in a rude state of society, being smmoved one. I{éféry'ifiififoVéE’saaétyj’the farmer is’gexl‘éiamarfirfig’sfi‘t’d‘farmer; the manufacturer, nothing but a manufacturer. The labour too which is necessary to produce any one complete manufacture, is almost always divided among a great number of hands. How many different trades are employed in each branch of the linen and woollen manufactures, from the growers of 'In Adam Smith’s Lecturer, p. 164, the business is, as here, divided into eighteen operations. This number is doubtless taken from the Encyclopédte, tom. v. (published in 1755), 5.1:. Epingle. The article is ascribed to M. De- laire, “qui décrivait la fabrication de l’épingle dans les ateliers meme des _ ouvriers,” p. 807. In some factories the division was carried further. 'E. Chambers, Cyclopedia, vol. ii., and ed., 1738, and 4th ed., 1741, 3.1). Pin, makes the number of separate operations twenty-five. GRAPH I PERCENTAGE OF U. S. COAL CONSUMPTION REPRESENTED BY VIRGINIA, FOREIGVBéPD‘BIngHRAClTE COAL I00 90 -—— VIRGINIA —'— FOREIGN so ----- ANTHRACITE PERCENT u a u- 0 o O N O 10 l82122 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 3| 32 33 34 35 36 37 36 39 40 4| 1342 YEAR Source: See tootnom 27. 1832, the completion of extensive improvements on the Lehigh Valley, the widening of the Schuylkill and the full use of the Dela- ware and Hudson made possible a jump in output from 175,000 tons in 1830 to 364,000 tons in 1832. Five years later, the coal carried on these three canals reached 881,000 tons. By then, the anthracite canals shipped by far the largest share of coal consumed in the northeastern states east of the Alleghenies. In 1822 the anthracite shipped from the Pennsylvania fields to tidewater had amounted to only 2.5 per cent, and in 1826 to 29.5 per cent of the coal consumed in the major industrial area of the nation. It amounted to 65.2 per cent of the coal used in 1833; 75.5 per cent in 1839; and 86.5 per cent in 1842. At the same time, consumption of coal for household and industrial uses along the waterways before it reached tidewater increased rapidly. By 1837, the total output was almost 1,230,000 tons. After a slight decline, it rose from 1,127,000 tons in 1841 to 3,165,000 in 1849. Much of the anthracite coal was shipped by canals and rivers to Philadelphia and New York and then re-exported to other coastal towns and cities. The New England market quickly became a 154 BUSINESS HISTORY REVIEW Price Index 120 1 10 100 90 80 70 60 5O 4O 3O 2O 10 Price Index of Bituminous Coal From Virginia In Philadelphia Price Index of Anthracite Coal From Eastern Pennsylvania In Philadelphia 1820 1825 1830 1835 1840 1845 1850 1855 1860 JUNE of each YEAR ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/18/2010 for the course ECON 316 taught by Professor Grubb during the Fall '09 term at University of Delaware.

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chandler coal graph - AN INQUIRY INTO THE NATURE AND CAUSES...

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