LECTURE NOTES - Maksuda Khatoon 106261220 PSYCHOLOGY 103...

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Maksuda Khatoon 106261220 PSYCHOLOGY 103 NOTES FOR EXAM 1 Introduction to Psychology Lecture 1 1/28/2008 Introduction Psychology: the study of cognitions (mental processes) and behaviors of individuals. Study of entire, individual people or dyads. Differs from: sociology (groups of people), biology (smaller functioning units), anthropology (development of humans from primates). Fields Clinical Psychology – study of psychopathology within individuals/dyads Abnormal Social Psychology – social functioning of groups often related to some sort of problematic functioning. Biopsychology/Neuropsychology – study of brain and CNS functioning. Developmental Psychology – study of human development from infancy. Goal of Psychology To explain human behavior. Behavior is how an individual acts to function within and adapt to its environment. Consider actions, thoughts, and feelings that may be part of or result in a behavior. Scientifically test theories about human behavior to understand how and why people do the things they do. And… what happens when people do not behave adaptively, but respond to the environment in a pathological way Wilhelm Wundt – first experimental psychologist Wanted to study the basic processes of sensation and perception. Wrote Principles of Physiological Psychology William James – wrote The Principles of Psychology (1890). Considered the most important Psych text, by many. G. Stanley Hall – founded the American Psychological Association Still the major association of Psychologists in the U.S. Structuralism Structuralism: study of structure of the mind and behavior Founded by Edward Titchener Determine structure of mind by examining individual’s sensations and cognitive experience, usually through self-report. Criticisms: too reductionistic, broke human experience down into elements rather than considered it as a complex process, based on (verbal) human report. 1
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Max Wertheimer – Gestalts – humans process experiences as “organized wholes” (all components together) rather than as individual parts put together. Functionalism Functionalism: study of how the mind functions and why we act as we do. Actions are based on adaptation to environment Founded by John Dewey Psychodynamic Theory Founded by Sigmund Freud All behavior is driven by biological drives towards aggression and sex. Act so as to satisfy needs and reduce the drives. Emphasis on early childhood as period of developing personality Lots of consideration of dreams and unconscious mind. Therapy focuses on resolving unresolved conflicts from one’s past as the root of current problems. Behaviorist Theory
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This note was uploaded on 02/18/2010 for the course PSY 101 taught by Professor La during the Spring '08 term at SUNY Stony Brook.

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LECTURE NOTES - Maksuda Khatoon 106261220 PSYCHOLOGY 103...

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