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Review sheet for midterm

Review sheet for midterm - Maksuda Khatoon 106261220 SOC...

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Maksuda Khatoon 106261220 March 11, 2008 SOC 105 MIDETERM REVIEW SHEET Word and terms to know…. 1. Sociological imagination: C.W Mills (1957), is the ability to see the societal patterns that influence the individual and groups. 2. Social culture: 3. Social change: refers to:* change in the nature, the social institutions, the social behavior or the social relations of a society, community of people, or other social structures. ... 4. Social interaction: refers to the ways in which one respond to another, whether face to face or over the telephone or on the computer. 5. Auguste Comte: lived during the Age of Enlightenment (Reason) in France, use of science and human reason to explain phenomenon, a positivist who believed that a system of thought in which scientific observations and descriptions is considered the highest form of knowledge. He coined the term sociology in 1838 and is called “The father of sociology”. Saw sociology as a response to issues in society. Sociology can discover laws of human and social behavior. He believed in positivism. His philosophy based on his conclusion that an intellectual discipline progresses only to the degree that it is grounded in facts and experience, i.e resets on information about which one can reasonably make positive statements. 6. Positivism: A system of thought, in which scientific observations and description are considered the highest form of knowledge (opposed to religious dogma, for example). According to Auguste, positivism seeks to describe only what “obviously” is, what one can really be positive about. A strict positivist, seeing a black… 7. Emile Durkheim: lived in France during 1858-1917 during anti-Semitism and saw that went Jews were degraded as large portion of the non-Jew population came together more strongly, he believed that people are glued together by belief systems and rituals like religion and social institutions reinforced the idea. Institutions/rituals symbolize and reinforce a sense of belonging by publicly punishing people, rituals sustain moral cohesion. Durkheim formed functionalism. 1
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8. Social facts: social patterns external to individuals. Customs and social values are external to individuals whereas psychological drives and motivation are only inside. Customs and values can still constrain individual behavior. Examples of social facts are laws, morals, beliefs, fashions, customs, etc.. 9. Karl Marx: 1818-1883, a philosopher, political economists, and revolutionary. Marx believed that class struggle was unavoidable product of capitalism, quickly becoming the economic model for society. Inequality between groups stems from economic organization. Marx believed that capitalism would create severe internal tensions between workers and capitals ultimately destroying the system. The capitalists system would be replaced by “communism”, where a “revolutionary dictatorship”. Marx saw capitalism as a system of relationships among different classes (capitalists, petty bourgeois, proletariats, and lumperproletariat). Profit is produced through the exploitation of the working class. Workers sell labor for wages. Marx founded that workers actually
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