Chapter 25 - Chapter 25 Animal Behavior Case Study Sex and...

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Chapter 25: Animal Behavior Case Study: Sex and Symmetry o Studies have shown that the more symmetrical males features are, the more women find him attractive. There is also an increase in number of sexual partners, as well as a decrease in the age they began having sex at. 25.1: How do innate and learned behaviors Differ? Behavior is any observable activity of a living animal. o Innate behaviors can be performed without prior experience Innate behaviors are performed in reasonably complete form, even the first time an animal of the right age and motivational state encounters a particular stimulus. Scientists can tell if it’s innate, but depriving the animal of the ability to learn it; red squirrels that have never been around nuts, immediately take it to the corner of the cage and attempt to bury it— thus its innate. o Learned behavior are modified by experience Natural selection may favor innate behaviors in many circumstances. Learning is the ability to change ones behavior based on experience; what animal’s learn show an vast evolutionary history. Habituation is a decline in response to a repeated stimulus: o Clearly adaptive; saves an organism from wasting energy by not repeating the same action if nothing happens following the stimulus. [ not hearing traffic at night for humans] Conditioning is a learned association between a stimulus and a response: o Trial-and-error learning—animals acquire new and appropriate responses to stimuli through experience. [ toad who tried to
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capture a bee and is stung learns to work quickly or avoid them all together] o Operant condition—an animal learns a behavior to receive a reward, such as pushing a button—learns connections between food and a specific action. o The specific learning abilities of each species have evolved to support its particular mode of life. Insight is problem solving without trial and error: o This is seen as “sudden problem solving” because it seems similar to a human’s ability to manipulate concepts to arrive at a solution. o There is no sharp distinction between innate and learned behaviors: Seemingly innate behavior can be modified by experience Baby chicks duck when anything is over head, but over time they learn to duck only when predators are above them; hawks, etc. Learning may be governed by innate constraints Imprinting, a special form of learning in which an animal’s nervous system is rigidly programmed to learn a certain thing only at a certain period of development. [ baby birds learn to follow the animal or object that they most frequently see during the sensitive
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Chapter 25 - Chapter 25 Animal Behavior Case Study Sex and...

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