Chapter 29 - Chapter 29: Earths Diverse Ecosystems: Case...

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Chapter 29: Earth’s Diverse Ecosystems: Case Study: Wings of Hope o Butterfly farming developed in the Arabuko-Sokoke Forest, where butterflies are grown by farmers instead of crops and things they would steal from the government protected forest. 28.1: What Factors Influence Earth’s Climate? o Weather—short-term fluctuations in temperature, humidity, cloud cover, wind, and precipitation in a region over periods of hours or days o Climate—refers to patterns of weather that prevail over years or centuries in a particular region o Both climate and Weather are Driven by the Sun Sun light reaches earth in different forms, depending on the wavelength. This solar energy drives the winds, ocean currents, and the global water cycle. All the incoming solar energy is radiated back into space, either as light or as infrared radiation (heat) The solar energy temporarily stored as heat by the atmosphere and earth’s surface maintains Earth’s relative warmth. o Earth’s Physical features also influence Climate Earth’s curvature and tilt influence the angle at which sunlight strikes: Latitude—north and south from the equator Longitude—East and west from the equator Air currents produce broad climatic regions Generated by Earth’s rotation and by differences in temperature between different air masses. Tropics: o Area around the equator where the direct rays of the sun and the rainfall produced when warm, moist air rises and is cooled create a band around the equator called the Tropics. o Warmest and wettest on earth Coriolis effect:
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o Refers to the effects of Earth’s rotation on large masses of air and water that flow freely to Earth’s surface. Ocean Currents Moderate Near short Climates: Driven by earth’s rotation, by winds, and by direct heating of water by the sun. Gyres are roughly circular patterns, caused by the Coriolis effect, they rotate clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and counterclockwise in the Southern Hempisphere Continents and Mountains complicate weather and climate: A variation in elevation within continents further complicates the understanding of weather. However it has been found that for every 1,000 feet of elevation the temperature drops about 3.5 degrees F. This explains why there can be snow covered mountains in the tropics A rain shadow is the dry area of a mountain where the cool air is warmed ahain as it travels down the far side of the mountain and absorbs water from the land—creates a dry area. El nino periodically disrupts the usual ocean-atmosphere interactions El nino- warming of pacific waters, for some reason shifts the weather patterns and brings rain to peru and South America, while Indonesia and Australia are plagued with drought. La Nina—while trying to return to normal weather patterns overshoot and
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This note was uploaded on 02/19/2010 for the course BIO 301 L taught by Professor Fritz during the Spring '09 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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Chapter 29 - Chapter 29: Earths Diverse Ecosystems: Case...

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