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Chapter 11 - Chapter 11 Congress Key Terms o Enumerated...

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Chapter 11: Congress: Key Terms: o Enumerated powers: Powers of the federal government specifically mentioned in the constitution. o Elastic clause: Article 1, section 8, of the constitution, also called the necessary and proper clause; gives congress the authority to make whatever laws are necessary and proper to carry out its enumerated responsibilities. o Bicameral: As applied to a legislative body, consisting of two houses or chambers o Delegate: Acting to the doctrine articulated by Edmund Burke, an elected representative who acts in perfect accord with the wishes of his or her constituents. o Trustee: According to the doctrine articulated by Edmund Burke, an elected representative who believes that his or her own best judgment, rather than instructions from constituents, should be used in making legislative decisions. o Descriptive representation: Sometimes called statistical representation , means that the composition of a representative body reflects the demographic composition of the population of a whole. o Constituency: The district of a legislator o Constituent: A citizen who lives in the district of an elected official o Reapportionment: The reallocation of house seats among the states, done after each national census, to ensure that seats are held by the states in proportion to the size of their populations. o Redistricting: The redrawing of congressional district lines within a state to ensure roughly equal proportions within each district. o Partisan: A committed member of a party; seeing issues from the point of view of the interests of a single party. o Gerrymandering: Redrawing electoral district lines to give an advantage to a particular party or candidate. o Majority-minority districts: Districts drawn to ensure that a racial minority makes up the majority of voters.
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o Open-seat election: An election in where there is no incumbent officeholder. o Franking privilege: Public subsidization from the members of congress to their constituents. o Casework: Services performed by members of congress for constituents. o Pork: Also called, pork-barrel; projects designed to bring to the constituency jobs and public money for which the members of congress can claim credit o Party conference: A organization of the members of a political party in the house or senate. o Caucus: A regional, ethnic, racial or economic subgroup within the house or senate. Also used to describe the party in the house and senate ass in republican caucus. o Whip: A political party in congress charged with keeping members informed of the plans of the party leadership, counting votes before action on important issues, and rounding up party members for votes in bills.
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