Chapter 16 - Chapter 16 Civil Rights The Struggle for...

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Chapter 16: Civil Rights: The Struggle for Political Equality: Key Terms: Civil rights: o Guarantees of equal treatment by government officials regarding political rights, the judicial system, and public programs Privileges and immunities clause: o The portion of Article IV, section 2 of the constitution that states that citizens from out of state have the same legal rights as local citizens in any state Due process clause: o The section of the 14 th amendment that prohibits states frpp, depriving anyone of life, liberty, or property “without due process of law,” a guarantee against arbitrary or unfair government actions. Equal protection clause: o The section of the 14 th amendment requiring states to provide equal treatment to all people within it boundaries Jim Crow: o Popular term for the system of legal racial segregation that existed in the American south until the middle of the 20 th century Poll tax: o A tax to be paid as a condition of voting used in the south to keep African Americans away from the polls. Literacy test: o A device used by the southern states to prevent African Americans from voting before the passafe of the voting rights act of 1965, which banned its use; usually involved interpretation of a section of a state’s constitution. Grandfather clause: o A device allowed whites who had failed the literacy test to vote anyway by extending the franchise to anyone whose ancestors had voted prior to 1867 White primaries: o Primary elections open onto whites
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Strict scrutiny: o The assumption that actions by elected bodies or official violate the constitution Suspect classification: o The invidious, arbitrary, or irrational designation of a group for special treatment by government De jure discrimination: o Unequal treatment based on government laws and regulations De facto discrimination: o Unequal treatment by private individual groups, and organizations Affirmative action: o programs of private and public institutions favoring minorities and women in hiring and in admissions to colleges and universities in an attempt to compensate for past discriminations. Intermediate scrutiny: o A legal test falling between ordinary and strict scrutiny relevant to issues of gender; under this test, the supreme court will allow gender classifications in laws if they are substantially related to an important government objective. Civil union: o A status in which a same-sex couple have the same legal rights, benefits, and protections as married couples Chapter 16: 488-503 Civil Rights Before the 20 th century: o An initial absence of civil rights: There is no listing in the constitution or bill of rights of what we call “civil rights”; the word “equality” does not appear in the constitution at all. Prior to the Civil war Africa-Americans were slaves and women had little if any
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Chapter 16 - Chapter 16 Civil Rights The Struggle for...

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