The Human Body - The Human Body (A & P study material...

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The Human Body st , 2 nd, and 3 rd chapters) CHAPTER 1 Anatomy: the study of structure – form and function Macroscopic - Large enough to be perceived or examined by the unaided eye (regional or surface) Microscopic - Too small to be seen by the unaided eye but large enough to be studied under a microscope (cytology = cell, histology = tissue) Developmental – traces structural changes that occur in the body throughout the life span (ex. Embryology, begin to the end) ATP: produced by almost all living things in their cell's organelles called mitochondria . It stands for adenosine triphosphate and it is the major 'currency' of energy in the body. The energy in its “ phosphodiester bond ” can later be used to fuel a wide variety of body process When the third phosphate bond is created, it immediately is broken and energy is released that can fuel the metabolic chemical reactions required by living organisms, which otherwise would be inefficient. This creates ADP which has one less phosphate attached to the group. It may be helpful to think of ATP as a battery that gets charged, and as soon as it is charged, it sets off a spark of energy that can be used to do work in the body. When ATP is utilize by the cell phosphate has a negative charge - PO3 and its negative charge is - 3, negative charges push away from each other Note : There are three Phosphate groups 96% of the body is composed of these four element- carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen ( CHON ) Negative feedback mechanisms: output of system shuts off/reduces intensity of original stimulus, Note : most homeostatic control mechanisms are negative feedback mechanisms Note : almost all of the control mechanisms in the body are negatively control, not positive
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Positive feedback mechanisms: output of system enhances the original stimulus so that further output is accelerated Note : positive feedback system is at the point when the baby comes out, then the body mechanism shuts down Homeostasis : increasing complexity it is essential that basic functions for life are allowed to proceed as smoothly and as undisturbed as possible even in the face of ever-changing environment. Homeostasis (def.): ability of the body to maintain relatively stable internal conditions despite ever-changing external environment; a state of dynamic equilibrium where change within relatively narrow limits. Homeostatic control mechanisms: 3 major components. A. Receptors: sensors. B. Control center: integration. C. Effectors: produces a response that affects the magnitude of the stimulus. Serous Membrane: Serosa - a serous membrane , especially one that lines the pericardial, pleural , and peritoneal cavities, enclosing their contents Serosa – surrounds the organs , a thin membrane lining the closed cavities of the body; has two layers with a space between that is filled with serous fluid Serous Membrane Terminology: Serous Membranes are named according to their location A. Visceral Serous Membranes (Visceral Serosa): cover all
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This note was uploaded on 02/19/2010 for the course BIOL 1611 taught by Professor Staff,u during the Spring '08 term at Georgia Perimeter.

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The Human Body - The Human Body (A & P study material...

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