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Unformatted text preview: Chem 120A Hybrid Orbitals/Spin 04/02/07 Spring 2007 Lecture 28 READING: Ratner/Schatz Ch.8 Atkins/Friedman Ch. 7.1-7.7 1 Hybrid Orbitals You may have been introduced to hybrid orbitals in a general chemistry or organic chemistry course. Using our knowledge of atomic orbitals (wavefunctions) from the last few lectures, we can present a more rigorous treatment of hybrid orbitals. Hybrid orbitals are linear superpositions of atomic orbitals. Remember that if a set of wavefunctions are eigenstates of the Hamiltonian then all linear combinations of these wavefunctions are eigenstates as well. Thus we can take our atomic wavefunctions and use them to form hybrid orbitals. Hybrid orbitals are useful models for decribing the bonding geometries of molecules. For example, you have seen the various ways the 2 s and 2 p orbitals can hybridize in carbon to form organic molecules (See Figure 1) Figure 1: a summary of the hybrid orbitals which may be formed from s and p orbitals. Image taken from: http://www.cms.k12.nc.us/allschools/providence/keenan/chem/images/hybrid orbitals.gif It is very important to remember that the total number of hybrid orbitals will be the same as the orginal number of atomic orbitals we started with. So if we take one s orbital and one p orbital we will end up with Chem 120A, Spring 2007, Lecture 28 1 two sp hybrid orbitals. The sp hybrid orbitals are formed by taking the following linear combinations:two sp hybrid orbitals....
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