Chapter01 - Physics 1301: Chapter 1, Pg 1 Introductory...

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Unformatted text preview: Physics 1301: Chapter 1, Pg 1 Introductory Physics I: Topics to be covered Linear motion: Kinematics Ch. 1-3, quiz 1 Dynamics Forces, Newtons laws Ch. 4-5, quiz 2 Conservation of energy, conservation of linear momentum Ch. 6-7, quiz 3 Rotational motion: Kinematics Dynamics Torques, Newtons laws, Conservation of angular momentum, Statics Ch. 9-11, quiz 4 Oscillatory motion Kinematics Dynamics Ch. 13 Final exam on all chapters Physics 1301: Chapter 1, Pg 2 Chapter 1: TOOLING UP Scientific method Scientific notation Physical quantities and units Dimensional analysis and estimates Accuracy and significant figures Scalars and vectors Physics 1301: Chapter 1, Pg 3 Welcome to PHYSICS Physics studies the physical world around us Everything from atoms to astronomical objects Physics is the most fundamental science, which serves other fields chemistry, life sciences, etc. Physics generates knowledge necessary to make technological advances which affect our everyday life Lasers, transistors, etc. are widely used in consumer products Global Positioning Systems (GPS) rely on general relativity Modern electronics will soon rely on quantum mechanics Physics 1301: Chapter 1, Pg 4 Scientific method Scientific method: interplay between observation and theory Observations suggest new theories, which lead to further observations, and so on. Physics 1301: Chapter 1, Pg 5 Classical mechanics Mechanics studies motion of objects Kinematics describes how the object moves Concepts: position, displacement, velocity, acceleration. Dynamics studies why the object moves Concepts: force, energy, momentum, angular momentum, .. Only a few fundamental laws are needed to describe motion of everyday objects! Physics 1301: Chapter 1, Pg 6 Length scales of the world Classical mechanics describes motion of everyday objects extremely well. Galilei, Kepler, Newton, XVI-XVII century Modifications are needed at: very small length scales quantum mechanics (Bohr, Heisenberg, Shrdinger, Plank) very large length scales general relativity (Einstein) very large velocities special relativity (Einstein) STM image of atomic surface Everyday life Supernova remnant (neutron star) Physics 1301: Chapter 1, Pg 7 Fundamental physical quantities and their units Fundamental physical quantities: Length L Mass M Time T All other quantities in mechanics are combinations of these three quantities. Units are needed to communicate the results. International System of units (SI): Length is measured in meters (m) Mass is measured in kilograms (kg) Time is measured in seconds (s) SI is also called metric or mks system Physics 1301: Chapter 1, Pg 8 Other systems of units cgs: Length is measured in centimeters Mass is measured in grams Time is measured in seconds British Engineering system: Length is measured in inches Mass is measured in slugs Time is measured in seconds used primarily in the U.S.used primarily in the U....
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Chapter01 - Physics 1301: Chapter 1, Pg 1 Introductory...

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