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lec11b - Machining Material Machining Material Removal...

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Machining Material Removal Machining – Processes Overview Lecture 11.b ISE 2204 – Introduction to Manufacturing Processes Dr. Jaime Camelio April 2 rd , 2009 ISE 2204 – Introduction to Manufacturing Processes – Spring 2009 Intro
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How chips are produced during machining Force and power requirements Mechanics of tool wear and failure Types and properties of cutting-tool materials Characteristics of machine tools Vibrations and chatter and their implications Design for machining operations Economics of machining ISE 2204 – Introduction to Manufacturing Processes – Spring 2009 Topics to be discussed Cutting involves single or multipoint cutting tools, such as turning, boring, drilling, tapping, milling, sawing, and broaching. Abrasive processes Advanced machining processes ISE 2204 – Introduction to Manufacturing Processes – Spring 2009 Common Machining Processes
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The major independent variables that affect cutting process are Tool material and coatings Tool shapes, surface finish and sharpness Workpiece materials and condition Cutting conditions such as speed, feed, and depth of cut Cutting fluids Characteristics of the machine tool Workpiece holding and fixturing While the dependent variables include the following Type of chip produced Force and energy dissipated during cutting ISE 2204 – Introduction to Manufacturing Processes – Spring 2009 Mechanics of Cutting Temperature rise in the workpiece, the tool, and the chip Tool wear and failure Surface finish and surface integrity of the workpiece Machining is the method whereby materials are removed from workpiece by cutting processes Important specifications 1) Depth of cut t o 2) Feed or feed rate (mm/rev or in/rev) 3) Spindle velocity (rpm) The phenomenon of material removal is that – a cutting tool moves to the left along the workpiece the tool causes the material to shear by plastic deformation ISE 2204 – Introduction to Manufacturing Processes – Spring 2009 Fundamentals of Machining
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Schematic illustration of a two-dimensional cutting process, or ISE 2204 – Introduction to Manufacturing Processes – Spring 2009 Orthogonal Cutting orthogonal cutting. (a) Orthogonal cutting with a well-defined shear plane, also known as the Merchant model; (b) Orthogonal cutting without a well-defined shear plane. The shape and orientation of the cutting tool greatly affects the chip formation mechanics Rake Angle 2 1 3 t c t o Sh A l Clearance Angle ISE 2204 – Introduction to Manufacturing Processes – Spring 2009 Tool Geometry Shear Angle
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Of particular importance is the rake angle that the tool makes with the workpiece normal Positive Rake Neutral Rake Negative Rake Workpiece Normal + Cutter Velocity Workpiece Normal 0 Cutter Velocity - Cutter Velocity Workpiece Normal ISE 2204 – Introduction to Manufacturing Processes – Spring 2009 Rake Angle ISE 2204 – Introduction to Manufacturing Processes – Spring 2009 Chip Formation
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