16 Companion_2009

16 Companion_2009 - CompanionAnimals Dogs History...

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Companion Animals Dogs - History - Brief Reproductive Physiology Cats - History - Brief Reproductive Physiology
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History of Dogs Bones of wolves along with those of  humans were found in North China  (300,000 years old) and in Kent,  England (400,000 years old)
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History of Dogs Domesticated about 12,000 years ago  (~10,000 B.C.) probably around modern  day Germany Wolves or Jackals were probably  “precursors” to the modern dogs Domesticated for companionship
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History of Dogs Distinctive breeds of dogs probably were  not present until 3,000 to 4,000 years ago By the Roman Empire, it is believed that  most of the main breeds of dogs were  intact and well defined
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Dog Terminology Bitch - female Stud - intact male Puppy - young dog of either sex Whelping - parturition (birth process) Spaying - ovariohysterectomy (remove  ovaries and uterus)
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Puberty Age at puberty is extremely variable  between and within breeds Range can be from 4 to 22 months Most people accept 6 to 7 months as an  average figure
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Estrus & Estrous Cycle Duration of estrus  average - 9 days range - 3 to 21 days Estrous cycle length average - 183 days, but    extremely variable
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Estrus & Estrous Cycles Influenced by breed German Shepherds have  estrous cycles of 4 to 4.5  months  - Basenji (African dog) only have  estrus per year
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Estrus and Estrous Cycles Season - estrous cycles are shorter  usually if one is scheduled to occur  between February and May Males - presence of intact males  decreases estrous cycle length (only  slightly)
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Breeding Stud has an os penis Os penis is a small bone is the bulbus  glandis (head of penis) Because of the os penis, penetration is  achieved without erection
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Breeding Once the penis is inside of the vagina,  erection occurs which results in the “tie” The tie occurs when the portion of the penis  with the os penis engourges with blood and  swells to a size so large that it is firmly  locked within the vagina
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Canine Breeding Myths The tie is not essential for pregnancy. The tie can last anywhere from 5 minutes  to several hours. During this time, it is not unusual for the  dogs to drag each other around. Ties break spontaneously. Throwing water on either dog doesn’t really  help.
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Pregnancy Range in gestation length is 58 to 68 days,  with an average of 63 to 64 days.
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This note was uploaded on 02/20/2010 for the course ANS 150 taught by Professor Jamoore during the Fall '08 term at N.C. State.

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16 Companion_2009 - CompanionAnimals Dogs History...

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