6 Genetics_2009

6 Genetics_2009 - Genetics Biology of Genetics Basic...

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Genetics Biology of Genetics Basic Principles Selection and Genetic Progress Inbreeding Coefficients
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Biology of Genetics
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gene ( genotype ) protein mRNA measurable trait or change within an animal ( phenotype )
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Definitions gene - sequence of DNA that direct protein synthesis is a very specific manner. These proteins, in turn, influence how traits are developed. mRNA - messenger RNA, template which directs assembly of amino acids into proteins
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Definitions genotype - the number and type of genes an animal possesses (genetic composition) phenotype - the characteristics of an animal that can be seen or measured (outward appearance)
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Genetic Sciences Genomics - estimating genetic composition of animals Proteonomics - estimating function of genes in animals based on proteins they produce Population Genetics - estimating phenotypic change in populations of animals
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Basic Principles
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Definitions Chromosome - collection of genes. Most chromosomes are large rod- like structures contained in the nucleus of the cell. Somatic cells have two “paired” chromosomes (diploid). gametes have one copy of the chromosome (haploid)
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Definitions Locus (loci) - location of a gene on a chromosome Allele – gene(s) that occupies(y) the same locus on homologous chromosomes.
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Definitions Homozygous - identical alleles (genes) at loci Heterozygous - different alleles (genes) at loci Dominant - one allele (gene) dominates the expression of the other Recessive - the allele (gene) whose expression is suppressed
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Homologous Chromosomes (one pair)
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Eye Color Growth Pairs of genes located at the same loci on homologous chromosomes
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Eye Color Brown Blue Alleles for eye color, heterozygous
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Blue Eyes Chromosome Pair Loci Loci Gene(s) for blue eyes Gene(s) for blue eyes Identical alleles (homozygous)
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Genotype + Environment ___________ Phenotype
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Heritability The proportion of total variation or phenotypic differences among animals that is due to differences in genotype
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Some traits are 100% heritable (no environmental effects on phenotype) eye color, coat color
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Genotype + (0) ___________ Phenotype
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This note was uploaded on 02/20/2010 for the course ANS 150 taught by Professor Jamoore during the Fall '08 term at N.C. State.

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6 Genetics_2009 - Genetics Biology of Genetics Basic...

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