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6 Digest_Lab - ANS 150 Introduction to Animal Science...

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ANS 150 - Introduction to Animal Science Digestive Anatomy / Feedstuff Laboratory The anatomy of the gastrointestinal tract and knowledge of the nutrient content of common feedstuffs are two important aspects of nutritional management of animals. Digestive anatomy basically determines what types of feed ingredients can be used in animal diets while the nutrient content of a feedstuff determines qualitative and quantitative aspects of rations commonly fed to animals. By the end of the laboratory today, you should be able to: 1). Identify the organs of the gastrointestinal tract from both ruminants and non-ruminants; 2). Classify animals based on their digestive anatomy; 3) Classify animals based on their eating behaviors; 4). Identify common feed ingredients and their primary use in animal rations; and 5). Use and understand terms associated with digestive anatomy and feed ingredients. Section I - General and Digestive Anatomy Be sure that you can identify the components of the gastrointestinal tract that are in bold type in both ruminants and non-ruminants. There are flow diagrams included to illustrate how food moves through the digestive tract of ruminants and non-ruminants. In the laboratory, on most of the specimens digestive and other organs are labeled. Finally, there is an electronic file that contains pictures of the various organs associated with the gastrointestinal tract. Digestive Anatomy The general basic design of the gastrointestinal tract is similar across a wide variety of mammals. It includes the mouth, esophagus, small intestine, pancreas, gall bladder, large intestine, cecum and rectum. The mouth is the first portion of the digestive tract encountered by foodstuffs in most mammals. Teeth reduce the particle size of food and chewing is important in mixing the food with saliva. Saliva in some animals (pigs and humans) contains enzymes called amylases which digest starch. The saliva of ruminants does not contain amylase. The esophagus is a muscular tube that via peristalic contractions transports food from the mouth into the stomach. The portion of the gastrointestinal tract which differs the most among mammals is the stomach . Monogastric or non-ruminants, as their name implies, have what is referred to as a simple stomach with one compartment. The monogastric stomach produces hydrochloric acid (HCl) and enzymes called pepsin and gastrin. These work together to partially digest proteins into polypeptides. In addition, the HCl assists with coagulation, or curdling, of milk. The contactile activity of the stomach, often referred to as “churning” assists with the mechanical break down of food.
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Figure 1. Flow Diagram of the Path of Food through the Digestive System of Ruminants and Non-ruminants Ruminant Non-Ruminant (Monogastric) Mouth (Teeth) Esophagus Rumen Reticulum Omasum Abomasum Pyloric Sphincter Small Intestines Large Intestines (colon) Anal sphincter Rectum Mouth (Teeth) Esophagus Stomach Pyloric Sphincter Small Intestines Large Intestines (colon) Anal sphincter Rectum cecum cecum gall bladder gall bladder pancreas pancreas
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