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chapter_9_part_1

chapter_9_part_1 - Glacial facies Glacial environments...

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Glacial facies Glacial environments encompass broad areas… Deposits on land = Continental Facies Grounded ice facies, – Unstratified – Stratified Proglacial/periglacial facies – glaciofluvial – glaciolacustrine Deposits at sea = Glacial-marine Facies Proximal facies Near ice-terminous in water Distal facies Beyond ice terminious on open shelf
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Continental Ice Facies: Grounded ice facies Unstratified diamicts Till deposited directly from ice on land Found in various types of moraines unstratified and unsorted pebbles, cobbles and boulders matrix of sand, silt, and clay Sands and silts commonly angular silt/clay produced by glacial abrasion Quaternary unstratified diamicton, Alaska
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Continental Ice Facies: Grounded ice facies • Stratified diamicts deposited from meltwaters upon, within, beneath or marginal to the glacier known as ice-contact sediments transported and reworked by meltwater Consists of gravels, sands and silts Better sorting Accumulates in channels or mounds • Kames = small mound-shaped accumulations of sand or gravel formed in meltwater ponds or crevasses in stagnant ice • Kame terraces = similar accumulations deposited along valley glacier • Eskers = narrow sinuous ridges of stratified sediment meltwater tunnels at the base or through the glacier
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Stratified diamict in an esker system
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Continental Ice Facies : Proglacial -environment Facies Glacial meltwater transports large quantities of glacial debris basinward of ice-contact zone – glaciofluvial sediment (e.g., braid streams) or glaciolacustrine sediment Has characteristics of the depositional setting with some evidence of glacial derivation Presence of varves from seasonal variation in meltwater
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Continental Ice Facies : Periglacial - environment Facies Wind-deflation of outwash plain sediment provides silt-size sediment Eolian transport of fine silts/clays downstream Dominantly angular grains of quartz Coarser particles construct dunes in periglacial areas widespread loess sheets are well-sorted silt & clay lacks well-defined stratification because of uniform grain size
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Marine Glacial Facies : Proximal Facies Setting = marine terminous of glacier/ice sheet Sediment constructs subaqueous sediment fans meltwater conduits fluidized till melt out from floating ice E.g., till deltas Sands and gravels accumulate within channels from sediment gravity underflows Mud and sand rain out of sediment plumes
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