Handout7 - Handout 7 Glycogen (continued): Strucutre: Right...

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Handout 7 Glycogen (continued): Strucutre: Right side or “reducing end” of the chain is attached to an anchor protein called Glycogenin The left side of the chain is the “non-reducing” end Enzyme Amylo (1,4-1,6) transglycosylase creates branches in glycogen by cleaving 4-6 residues on the left or “non-reducing end” and reattaching them at a branch point along the chain Polysaccharide Phosphorylases break down glycogen to glucose o Plants: Starch phosphorylase o Animals: Glycogen Phosphorylase Glycogen Breakdown: Glycogen (n residues) with a free organic phosphate is broken down in to Glucose 1-Phosphate and Glycogen (n-1 residues) by Glycogen Phosphorylase Glucose 1-Phosphate is converted back to Glucose 6-Phosphate by Phsophoglucomutase Glucose 6-Phosphate can enter Glycolysis, Gluconeogenesis, or the Pentose Phosphate Pathway from here Glycogen Synthesis: When you consume a meal with lots of glucose, your blood glucose level increases. If your body does not need to utilize all of the glucose for metabolic purposes, then it can store it in the form of glycogen in your liver and muscles. At the intermediate molecule Glucose 6-Phosphate, the enzyme phosphoglucomutase catalyzes it into Glucose 1-Phosphate Using a molecule of UTP, UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase catalyzes Glucose 1- Phosphate to UDP-Glucose. UDP-Glucose is then added to a glycogen chain on the non-reducing end (left side) by the enzyme Glycogen Synthase (UDP is lost here) Regulation of Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular level: currency = ATP Organismal level: currency = Glucose
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Handout7 - Handout 7 Glycogen (continued): Strucutre: Right...

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