ch14 - Chapter 14 The Ideal Gas Law and Kinetic Theory 14.1...

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Chapter 14 The Ideal Gas Law and Kinetic Theory
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14.1 Molecular Mass, the Mole, and Avogadro’s Number To facilitate comparison of the mass of one atom with another, a mass scale know as the atomic mass scale has been established. The unit is called the atomic mass unit (symbol u). The reference element is chosen to be the most abundant isotope of carbon, which is called carbon-12. kg 10 6605 . 1 u 1 27 - × = The atomic mass is given in atomic mass units. For example, a Li atom has a mass of 6.941u.
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14.1 Molecular Mass, the Mole, and Avogadro’s Number One mole of a substance contains as many particles as there are atoms in 12 grams of the isotope cabron-12. The number of atoms per mole is known as Avogadro’s number, N A . 1 23 mol 10 022 . 6 - × = A N A N N n = number of moles number of atoms
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14.1 Molecular Mass, the Mole, and Avogadro’s Number mole per Mass particle particle m N m N m n A = = The mass per mole (in g/mol) of a substance has the same numerical value as the atomic or molecular mass of the substance (in atomic mass units). For example Hydrogen has an atomic mass of 1.00794 g/mol, while the mass of a single hydrogen atom is 1.00794 u.
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14.1 Molecular Mass, the Mole, and Avogadro’s Number Example 1 The Hope Diamond and the Rosser Reeves Ruby The Hope diamond (44.5 carats) is almost pure carbon. The Rosser Reeves ruby (138 carats) is primarily aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ). One carat is equivalent to a mass of 0.200 g. Determine (a) the number of carbon atoms in the Hope diamond and (b) the number of Al 2 O 3 molecules in the ruby.
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14.1 Molecular Mass, the Mole, and Avogadro’s Number ( 29 ( 29 ( 29 [ ] mol 741 . 0 mol g 011 . 12 carat 1 g 200 . 0 carats 5 . 44 mole per Mass = = = m n (a) (b) ( 29 ( 29 ( 29 [ ] ( 29 ( 29 mol 271 . 0 mol
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ch14 - Chapter 14 The Ideal Gas Law and Kinetic Theory 14.1...

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