# ch18 - Chapter 18 Electric Forces and Electric Fields 18.1...

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Chapter 18 Electric Forces and Electric Fields

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18.1 The Origin of Electricity The electrical nature of matter is inherent in atomic structure. kg 10 673 . 1 27 - × = p m kg 10 675 . 1 27 - × = n m kg 10 11 . 9 31 - × = e m C 10 60 . 1 19 - × = e coulombs
18.1 The Origin of Electricity In nature, atoms are normally found with equal numbers of protons and electrons, so they are electrically neutral. By adding or removing electrons from matter it will acquire a net electric charge with magnitude equal to e times the number of electrons added or removed, N . Ne q =

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18.1 The Origin of Electricity Example 1 A Lot of Electrons How many electrons are there in one coulomb of negative charge? Ne q = 18 19 - 10 25 . 6 C 10 1.60 C 00 . 1 × = × = = e q N
18.2 Charged Objects and the Electric Force It is possible to transfer electric charge from one object to another. The body that loses electrons has an excess of positive charge, while the body that gains electrons has an excess of negative charge.

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18.2 Charged Objects and the Electric Force LAW OF CONSERVATION OF ELECTRIC CHARGE During any process, the net electric charge of an isolated system remains constant (is conserved).
18.2 Charged Objects and the Electric Force Like charges repel and unlike charges attract each other.

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18.2 Charged Objects and the Electric Force
18.3 Conductors and Insulators Not only can electric charge exist on an object, but it can also move through and object . Substances that readily conduct electric charge are called electrical conductors . Materials that conduct electric charge poorly are called electrical insulators.

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18.4 Charging by Contact and by Induction Charging by contact.
18.4 Charging by Contact and by Induction Charging by induction.

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18.4 Charging by Contact and by Induction The negatively charged rod induces a slight positive surface charge on the plastic.
18.5 Coulomb’s Law

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18.5 Coulomb’s Law COULOMB’S LAW The magnitude of the electrostatic force exerted by one point charge on another point charge is directly proportional to the magnitude of the charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.
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