33654_11a - Previous Page 416 Nitrogen Ch 1 1 The first example of a tris-N2 complex is the yellow crystalline compound mer[Mo(~-N~)~(PP$P~)~(~~

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Unformatted text preview: Previous Page 416 Nitrogen Ch. 1 1 The first example of a tris-N2 complex is the yellow crystalline compound mer- [Mo(~'-N~)~(PP$P~)~].(~~) X-ray structural studies have shown that for N2 complexes with structure (I), the M-N-N group is linear or nearly so (172-180"); the N -N internuclear distance is usually in the range 110-113pm, only slightly longer than in gaseous N2 (109.8 pm). Such complexes have a strong sharp, infrared absorption in the range 1900-2200 cm-' , corresponding to the Ramanactive band at 2331 cm-' in free N2. Similarly, in complexes with structure (2), when both transition metals have a closed d-shell, the N-N distance falls in the range 112-120pm and u(N-N) often occurs near 2100cm-', i.e. little altered from that of the corresponding complexes of structure (1). On the other hand, if one of the M is a transition metal with a closed d-shell and the other is either a maingroup metal such as A1 in AlMe3 or an openshell transition metal such as Mo in MoC14, then the N-N bond is greatly lengthened and the N-N stretching frequency is lowered even to 1600cm-' . Compounds with structure (3) have N -N 134- 136 pm, and this very substantial lengthening has been attributed to interaction with the Li atoms in the structure.(33) As implied above, N2 is isoelectronic with both CO and C2H2, and the detailed description of the bonding in structures 1-4 follows closely along the lines indicated on pp. 927 and 932 though there are some differences in the detailed sequences of orbital energies. Crystallographic and vibrational spectroscopic data have been taken to indicate that N2 is weaker than CO in both its a-donor and n-acceptor functions. Theoretical studies suggest that a donation is more important for the formation of the M-N bond than is n back-donation, which mainly contributes to the weakening of the N -N bond, and end-on ( q ' ) donation is more favourable than side-on ( V ~ ) . ( ~ ' ) - The chemical reactivity of coordinated N2 has been extensively studied because of its potential relevance to the catalytic and biological fixation of N2 to NH3 (p. 1035). For other recent work on the reactions of coordinated dinitrogen see refs. 41-44 To conclude this section on the chemical reactivity of nitrogen it will be helpful to compare the element briefly with its horizontal neighbours C and 0, and also with the heavier elements in Group 15, P, As, Sb and Bi. The diagonal relationship with S is vestigial. Nitrogen resembles oxygen in its high electronegativity and in its ability to form H bonds (p. 52) and coordination complexes (p. 198) by use of its lone-pair of electrons. Catenation is more limited than for carbon, the longest chain so far reported being the Ng unit in PhN= N -N(Ph) -N =N- N(Ph) -N=NPh. Nitrogen shares with C and 0 the propensity for multiple bonding via pn -pn interactions both with another N atom or with a C or 0 atom. In this it differs sharply from its Group 15 congeners which have no analogues of the oxides of nitrogen, nitrites, nitrates, nitro-, nitroso-, azo- and diazo-compounds, azides, cyanates, thiocyanates or imino-derivatives. Conversely, there are no nitrogen analogues of the various oxoacids of phosphorus (p. 510). 11.3 Compounds This section deals with the binary compounds that nitrogen forms with metals, and then describes the extensive chemistry of the hydrides, halides, pseudohalides, oxides and oxoacids of the element. The chemistry of P-N compounds is deferred until Chapter 12 (p. 531) and S-N 41 M. HIDAI and Y. MIZOBE, P. S. BRATERMAN Reacin (ed.) tions o Coordinated Ligands, Vol. 2, Plenum Press, New f York, 1989, pp. 53- 114 (202 refs.) 4 2T. A. GEORGE, . M. KOCZON R. C . TISDALE, olyL and P hedron 9, 545-51 (1990). 43 J. 0. DZIEGIELEWSKI and R. GRZYBEK,Polyhedron 9, 6 4 - 5 1 (1990). 44 S. NIELSON-MARSH,J . CROWIT and P. G. EDWARDS, R. J. Chem. SOC.,Chem. Commun., 699-700 (1992). 3 9S. N. ANDERSON,. L. HUGHES D and R. L. RICHARDS, J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun., 958-9 (1984). 4 0T. YAMABE, . HORI,T. MINATO K and K. FUKUI, norg. I Chem. 19, 2154-9 (1980). 31 1.3.1 Nitrides, azides and nitrido complexes 417 compounds are discussed in Chapter 15 (p. 721). Compounds with B (p. 207) and C (p. 319) have already been treated. 1 1.3.I Nitrides, azides and nitrido complexes Nitrogen forms binary compounds with almost all elements of the periodic table and for many elements several stoichiometries are observed, e.g. MnN, Mn6N5, Mn3N2, MnzN, Mn4N and Mn,N (9.2 < x < 25.3). Nitrides are frequently classified into 4 groups: “salt-like”, covalent, “diamond-like’’ and metallic (or “interstitial”). The remarks on p. 64 concerning the limitations of such classifications are relevant here. The two main methods of preparation are by direct reaction of the metal with N2 or NH3 (often at high temperatures) and the thermal decomposition of metal amides, e.g.: 3Ca+N2 3Mg + 3H2 3Zn(NH2)z --+ Zn3N2 + 4NH3 + 2NH3 Mg3N2 900” Ca3N2 Common variants include reduction of a metal oxide or halide in the presence of N2 and the formation of a metal amide as an intermediate in reactions in liquid NH3: + 3C + N2 +2A1N + 3CO 2ZrN + 8HC1 2ZrC1, + N2 + 4H2 -3H2 3Ca + 6NH3 (3Ca(NH2>2) Ca3N2 + 4NH3 A1203 Metal nitrides have also been prepared by adding KNH2 to liquid-ammonia solutions of the appropriate metal salts in order to precipitate the nitride, e.g. C U ~ N , Hg3N2, AlN, T13N and BIN. “Salt-like’’ nitrides are exemplified by Li3N (mp 548”C, decomp) and M3N2 (M =Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba). It is possible to write ionic formulations of these compounds using the species N3- though charge separation is - unlikely to be complete, particularly for the corresponding compounds of Groups 11 and 12, i.e. Cu3N, Ag3N, and M3N2 (M = Zn, Cd, Hg). The N3- ion has been assigned a radius of 146pm, slightly larger than the value for the isoelectronic ions 02-(140 pm) and F- (133 pm), as expected. Stability varies widely; e.g. Be3N2 melts at 2200°C whereas Mg3N2 decomposes above 271°C. The existence of Na3N is doubtful and the heavier alkali metals appear not to form analogous compounds, perhaps for steric reasons (p. 76). However the azides NaN3 and K N 3 are well characterized as colourless crystalline salts which can be melted with little decomposition; they feature the symmetrical linear N3- group as do Sr(N3)2 and Ba(N3)2. The corresponding “B subgroup” metal azides such as AgN,, Cu(N3)2, and Pb(N3)2 are shock-sensitive and detonate readily; they are far less ionic and have more complex structures. Further discussion of azides is on p. 433. Other stoichiometries are also known, e.g. Ca2N (anti-CdCl2 layer structure), Ca3N4, and CallNg. The covalent binary nitrides are more conveniently treated under the appropriate element. Examples include cyanogen (CN)2 (p. 320), P3N5 (p. 531), S2N2 (p. 725) and S4N4 (p. 722). The Group 13 nitrides MN (M = B, Al, Ga, In, T1) are a special case since they are isoelectronic with graphite, diamond, Sic, etc., to which they are structurally related (p. 255). Their physical properties suggest a gradation of bond-type from covalent, through partially ionic, to essentially metallic as the atomic number increases. Si3N4 and Ge3N4 are also known and have the phenacite (BezSi04)-type structure. Si3N4, in particular, has excited considerable interest in recent years as a ceramic material with extremely desirable properties: high strength and wear resistance, high decomposition temperature and oxidation resistance, excellent thermalshock properties and resistance to corrosive environments, low coefficient of friction, etc. Unfortunately it is extremely difficult to fabricate and sinter suitably shaped components, and considerable efforts have therefore been spent on developing related nitrogen ceramics by forming 418 Nitrogen Ch. 1 1 solid solutions between Si3N4 and A1203 to give the "sialons" (SiAlON) of general formula Si6-o.7snAlo.67x0,N8-x(0 < X < 6).'45' The most extensive group of nitrides are the metallic nitrides of general formulae MN, M2N, and M4N in which N atoms occupy some or all of the interstices in cubic or hcp metal lattices (examples are in Table 11.1, p. 413). These compounds are usually opaque, very hard, chemically inert, refractory materials with metallic lustre and conductivity and sometimes having variable composition. Similarities with borides (p. 145) and carbides (p. 297) are notable. Typical mps ("C) are: TIN 2950 ZrN 2980 T hN 2630 HfN 2700 UN 2800 VN 2050 NbN 2300 TaN 3090 CrN d1770 Hardness on the Mohs scale is often above 8 and sometimes approaches 10 (diamond). These properties commend nitrides for use as crucibles, high-temperature reaction vessels, thermocouple sheaths and related applications. Several metal nitrides are also used as heterogeneous catalysts, notably the iron nitrides in the Fischer-Tropsch hydriding of carbonyls. Few chemical reactions of metal nitrides have been studied; the most characteristic (often extremely slow but occasionally rapid) is hydrolysis to give ammonia or nitrogen: 2A1N 2VN transition metals.(46)It is considered to be by far the strongest 7t donor known, the next strongest being the isoelectronic species 02-. Nitrido complexes are usually prepared by the thermal decomposition of azides (e.g. those of phosphine complexes of Vv, Mo", Wv', RuV', ReV) or by deprotonation of NH3 (e.g. [Os04+Os03N]-). Most involve a terminal { G N } ~ group as in [VC13N]-, [Mo03N]-, [WClsN]*-, [ReN(PR3)3X2] and [RuN(OH2)&]-. The M-N distance is much shorter (by 40-50pm) than the "normal" a-(M-N) distance, consistent with strong multiple bonding. Other bonding modes feature linear symmetrical bridging as in [( H ~ O ) C ~ ~ R U - N - R U C ~ ~ ( O Hrigonal , t~)]~planar p 3 bridging as in [ { (H20)(SO4>21r}3Nl4-, and tetrahedral coordination as in [(MeHg)4N]+ (Fig. 11.3). The nitrido ligand has a strong trans influence, e.g. in [ O S ~ ' N C ~ (p. ~ ~ ] 1085); likewise, in the octahedral complex. [TcVNC12(PMezPh)3], the Tc-Cl distance trans to N is 266.5pm whereas that cis to N is only 244.1 pm.(47) Azidotrifluoromethylmethane, CF3N3, (mp -152", bp -285") is a colourless gas which is thermally stable at room temperature. It can be prepared in 90% yield by reacting CF3NO with hydrazine in MeOH at -78" and then treating the product with HC1 gas.(48) CF3NO + (n +3)H20 + 3H2S04 - + H2NNH2 A 1203.nH20 2NH3 Vz(SO4)3 + + Nz + 3H2 -- C F3-NzNNH2 CF3NNN The crystal chemistry of metal nitrides has been reviewed(45a)and there have recently been some intriguing developments in our understanding of the stoichiometries and structures of ternary and quaternary metal nitrides.(45b) The nitride ion N3- is an excellent ligand, particularly towards second- and third-row K. H. JACK, rans. J . Br. Ceram. SOC. 72,376-84 (1973). T F. L. RILEY(ed.), Nitrogen Ceramics, Noordhoff-Leyden, 1977, 694 pp. 4 5a N. E. BRESE nd M . O'KEEFE, tructure and Bonding, 79, a S 45 The molecule has an almost linear N3 group and an angle C-N-N of 112.4" (Fig. 11.4a).(49) The (linear) azide ion, N3-, is isoelectronic with N20, C02,OCN-, etc. and forms numerous coordination complexes by standard ligand replacement reactions. Various coordination modes have been established, including end-on ql, bridging P. G R I ~ T H oord. Chem. Revs. 8, 369-96 (1972). C, S. BATSANOV, u. T. STRUCHKOV, LORENZand Y B. B. OLK,2. anorg. allg. Chem. 564, 129-34 (1988). 4 8K. 0. CHRISTE, and C. J. SCHACK, norg. Chem. 20, Z 46 W . 47 A. 2566-70 (1981). 49 K. 0. CHRISTE, D. CHRISTEN, H. OBERHAMMER and C. J. SCHACK, Znorg. Chem. 23, 4283-8 (1984). 307-78 (1992). 45b R. KNIEP,Pure Appl. Chem. 69, 185-91 (1997). I 1 1.3.1 Nitrides, azides and nitrido complexes 419 Figure 11.3 Structures of some nitrido complexes.(24) p,ql and bridging p ,q':q' (Fig. 11.4).(509511 The binuclear complex [MozC12N20]~- features a terminal nitrido ligand, N--, as well as terminal and bridging azido ligands, Le. [{(MOcl(N>(V1 )z(FcL,TI1-N3) )212- . (52) -N3 Concatenations larger than N3 are rare. The planar bridging N44- occurs in the binuclear W"' dianion, [C15W(,~,q~:q~-N4)WC15]~-; this is formed during the thermolytic interconversion of [W(N3)C15] to the corresponding nitrido complex WNC13 in the presence of Ph4AsC1, the nitride reacting as it is formed with unreacted azide still present according to the simple stoichiometry:(53) D. FENSKE, STEINER K. DEHNICKE, . anorg. allg. K. and 2 Chem. 553, 5 7-63 (1987). 5 1 P. CHAUDHURI, . GUTTMANN,D. VENTUR, K. WIEGM HARDT, B. NUBER and J . WEISS, J . Chem. SOC., Chem. Commun., 1 618-20 (1985). 52 K. JANSEN, SCHMITTE J. and K. DEHNICKE, . anorg. allg. Z Chem. 5 52, 2 01-9 (1987). 53 W. MASSA, R. KUJANEK, . BAUM and K. DEHNICKE, G Angew. Chem. Int. Edn. Engl. 23, 149 (1984). 2 Ph4AsClt WNC13 + W(N3)ClS --+ It will be noted that N44- is isosteric with the tetradeprotonated urea molecule, (HzN)zC=O, and is also isoelectronic and isostructural with CO3'and NO3-. An X-ray analysis of the red single crystals shows that N(centra1)-N, is long (149pm) and that N(centra1)-N, is short (123 pm). Unbranched Ncatenation is observed in 2-tetrazenes such as (Me3Si)zN-N=N-N(SiMe3)2 (mp 46") and its derivatives, e.g. Me3Si-N-N =N-N-N(SiMe3), (mp 40") LSiMe, and (Me, Si ),N-N-N =N-N-N( SiMe,), L SiMe2A (54) 5 4N. WIBERCand G. ZIECLEDER, hem. Ber. 111, 2123-9 C (1978). 420 Nitrogen Ch. 11 Figure 11.4 Structures of some azido complexes. 1 1.3.2 Ammonia and ammonium salts NH3 is a colourless, alkaline gas with a unique, penetrating odour that is first perceptible at concentrations of about 20-50 ppm. Noticeable irritation to eyes and the nasal passages begins at about 100-200 ppm, and higher concentrations can be dangerous.(55) NH3 is prepared industrially i n larger amounts (number of moles) than any other single compound (p. 407) and the production of synthetic ammonia is of major importance for several industries (see Panel). 5 5T. A . CZUPPON, . A . KNEZand J. M . ROVNER, mmoS A nia, Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, 4th edn., Vol. 2, pp. 638-91, Wiley, New York, 1992 In the laboratory NH3 is usually obtained from cylinders unless isotopically enriched species such as 15NH3 or ND3 are required. Pure dry 15NH3 can be prepared by treating an enriched 15NH4+ salt with an excess of KOH and drying the product gas over metallic Na. Reduction of "NO3- or ''N02- with Devarda's alloy (50% Cu, 45% Al, 5 % Zn) in alkaline solution provides an alternative route as does the hydrolysis of a nitride, e.g.: 3 Ca+ 15N2 - Ca315N2 d 2 lSNH3+3Ca(OH)2 6H2O ND3 can be prepared similarly using D20, e.g.: Mg3N2 +6D20 - 2ND3 + 3Mg(OD), 311.3.2 Ammonia and ammonium salts 421 Industrial Production of Synthetic Arnrn~nia~~~'~') The first industrial production of NH3 began in 1913 at the BASF works in Ludwigshaven-Oppau, Germany. The plant, which had a design capacity of 30 tonnes per day. involved an entirely new concept in process technology; it was based on the Haber-Bosch high-pressure catalytic reduction of Nz with H2 obtained by electrolysis of water. Modern methods employ the same principles for the final synthesis but differ markedly in the source of hydrogen, the efficiency of the catalysts, and the scale of operations, many plants now having a capacity of 1650 tonnes per day or more. Great ingenuity has been shown not only in plant development but also in the application of fundamental thermodynamics to the selection of feasible chemical processes. Except where electricity is unusually cheap, reduction by electrolytic hydrogen has now been replaced either by coke/HzO or, more recently, by natural gas (essentially CHq) or naphtha (a volatile aliphatic petrollike fraction of crude oil). The great advantages of modem hydrocarbon reduction methods over coal-based processes are that, comparing plant of similar capital costs, they occupy one-third the land area, use half the energy, and require one-tenth the manpower, yet produce 4 times the annual tonnage of NH3. The operation of a large synthetic ammonia plant based on natural gas involves a delicately balanced sequence of reactions. The gas is first desulfurized to remove compounds which will poison the metal catalysts, then compressed to -30 atm and reacted with steam over a nickel catalyst at 750°C in the primaly steam reformer to produce Hz and oxides of carbon: CHq + H 20 F=== Nin50" CO + 3Hz; CHq + 2 Hz0 Nin50" C02 + 4Hz Under these conditions the issuing gases contain some 9% of umacted methane; sufficient air is injected via a compressor to give a final composition of 1 : 3 N2 : Hz and the air bums in the hydrogen thereby heating the gas to - 1 100°C in the secondary reformer: The emerging gas, now containing only 0.25% CHq, is cooled in heat exchangers which generate high-pressure steam for use first in the turbine compressors and then as a reactant in the primary steam reformer. Next, the CO is converted to COz by the shifr reaction which also produces more Hz: Maximum conversion occurs by equilibration at the lowest possible temperature so the reaction is carried out sequentially on two beds of catalyst: (a) iron oxide (400°C) which reduces the CO concentration from 11% to 3%; (b) a copper catalyst he (200") which reduces t CO content to 0.3%. Removal of COz (-18%) is effected in a scrubber containing either a concentrated alkaline solution of KzCO3 or an amine such as ethanolamine: COZ HzO + + KZc03 absorption 7 regeneration (heat) .~ K H C O ~ + + Remaining trace quantities of CO (which would poison the iron catalyst during ammonia synthesis) are converted back to CHq by passing the damp gas from the scrubbers over a Ni methanation catalyst at 325": CO 3H2#C& HzO. This reaction is the reverse of that occurring in the primary steam reformer. The synthesis gas now emerging has the approximate composition Hz 74.3%. NZ 24.7%. CHq 0.8%. Ar 0 .38, CO 1-2 ppm. It is compressed in three stages from 25 atm to -200 atm and then passed over a promoted iron catalyst at 380-450°C: Nz + 3Hz , Fe/400"/200 a m '.2NH3 The gas leaving the catalyst beds contains about 15% NH3; this is condensed by refrigeration and the remaining gas mixed with more incoming synthesis gas and recycled. Variables in the final reaction are the synthesis pressure, Panel continues %. P. S. ANDREW,n R. THOMPSON The Modem Inorganic Chemicals Industry, pp. 201-31, The Chemical Society, i (ed.), London, 1977. 57S. D. LYON, hem. Znd. 731-9 (1975). C 422 Nitrogen Ch. I 1 synthesis temperature. gas composition, gas flow rate ’ and catalyst composition and particle size. Since the earliest days the “promoted” Fe catalysts have been prepared by fusing magnetite ( F ~ O Jon a table with KOH i n the presence of a ) small aniount of mixed refractory oxides such as MgO, A1203 and S O ? ; the solidified sheet is broken up into chunks 5 - IOmm i n size. These chunks are then reduced inside the ammonia synthesis converter to give the active catalyst which consists of Fe crystallites separated by the amorphous refractory oxides and partly covered by the alkali promotor which increases its activity by at least an order of magnitude. World production of synthetic ammonia has increased dramatically particularly during the period 1950-80. Production i n 1950 was little more than 1 million tonnrs; though this was huge when compared with the production of most other compounds, i t is dwarfed by today‘s rate of production which exceeds 120 million tonnes pa. In 1990 world production capacity was 119.6 million tonnes distributed as follows: Asia 35.4%, the former Soviet Union 21.58. North America 13.8%. Western Europe 11.3%. Eastern Europe 9.7% Latin America 5.3%. Africa 3.09. The price of NH3 (FOB Gulf Coast plants, USA) was $107/tonne i n 1990. The applications of NH3 are dominatcd (over 8 5 8 ) by its use i n various forms as a fertilizer. Of these, direct application is the most common (28.7%). followed by urea (22.4%). N b N 0 3 (15.8%). ammonium phosphates (14.6%). and ( NHJ )?SO4 ( 3.44,). Industrial uses include (a) commercial explosives - such LLS NHdN03, nitroglycerine, TNT and nitrocellulose, which are produced from NH3 via HNO3 - and (b) fibres/plastics e.@.i n the manufacture of caprolactam for nylon-6. hexamethylenediamine for nylon-6.6, polyamides, rayon and polyurethanes. Other uses include a wide variety of applications i n refrigeration. wood pulping. detinning of scrap-metal and corrosion inhibition; i t is also used as a rubber stabilizer. pH controller, in the manufacture of household detergents, in the food and beverage industry, pharmaceuticals, water purification and the manufacture of numerous organic and inorganic chemicals. Indeed, synthetic ammonia is the key to the industrial production of most inorganic nitrogen compounds. as indicated in the subjoined Scheme. ’ Flow ratc is usually quoted as “space velocity”. i.e. the ratio of volumetric rate of gas at STP to volume of catalyst; typical values are i n the range 8000-60000 h -’. 1 . The chemical fixation of N2 to NH3 under less extreme conditions than those used industrially is a continuing area of active research and considerable progress has been made in elucidating mechanisms involving N2 coordinated to Mo, W, V and other c e n t r e ~ . ( ~ ~ ~ , ~ ~ - ~ ~ ) 58 T. A. GEORGE R . C . TISDALE, A m. Chem. S OC. 107, and J. 5157-9 (1985). Some physical and molecular properties of NH3 are in Table 11.2. The influence of H 59 K. ALKA, ngew. Chem. I nt. Edn. Engl. 2 5,558-9 (1986). A 60R. . RICHARDS,hem. in Britain,Feb. 1988, pp. 133-6. L C 6 1M. Y . MOHAMMED C. J. PICKETT, J . Chem. Soc., and Chem. Commun., 1119-21 (1988). 6 2R. R . EADY, olyhedron 8, 1695-1700 (1989). P and J. R . SANDERS, . J 63G. J . LEIGH, R . PRIETO-ALCON Chem. S OC., Chem. Commun., 921-2 (1991). 97 7 3 2 .. Physical properties ~~~ ~ ~ Ammonia and ammonium salts 423 Table 11.2 Some properties of ammonia, NH3 Molecular properties 195.42 239.74 0.6826 0.5963 0.254 22 1.97 10-7 -46.1 -16.5 192.3 Symmetry Distance (N-H)/pm Angle H-N-H Pyramid height/pm p/Debye(b) Inversion barrier kJ mol-' Inversion frequency/GHz(') D(H-NH2)M mol-' Ionization energyM mol-' Proton affinity (gas)/kTmol-' C3v (pyramidal) MP/K BP/K Density(1; 239 K)/g cm-3 Density(g; rel. air = 1) ~(239.5 K)/centipoise(a) Dielectric constant ~ ( 2 3K) 9 ~ (234.3 )/ohm-' cm-' K AHF(298 K ) M mol-' AG:(298 K)/kJ mol-' s"(298 K)/J K-' mol-' 101.7 107.8" 36.7 1.46 24.7 23.79 435 979.7 84 1 ( a)l centipoise = l op3 k gm-' s -'. ( b)lDebye = esu = 3.335 64 x 10-30C m. ('I1 GHz = lo9 s-' bonding on the bp and other properties has already been noted (p. 53). It has been estimated that 26% of the H bonding in NH3 breaks down on melting, 7% on warming from the mp to the bp, and the final 67% on transfer to the gas phase at the bp. The low density, viscosity and electrical conductivity, and the high dielectric constant of liquid ammonia are also notable. Liquid NH3 is an excellent solvent and a valuable medium for chemical reactions (p. 424); its high heat of vaporization (23.35 kJ mol-' at the bp) makes it relatively easy to handle in simple vacuum flasks. The molecular properties call for little comment except to note that the rapid inversion frequency with which the N atom moves through the plane of the 3 H atoms has a marked effect on the vibrational spectrum of the molecule. The inversion itself occurs in the microwave region of the spectrum at 23.79GHz (corresponding to a wavelength of 1.260 cm) and was, in fact, the first microwave absorption spectrum to be detected (C. E. Cleeton and N. H. Williams, 1934). The associated energy ( hcc) is 0.7935 cm-' i.e. 9.49 J mol-'. Inversion also occurs in ND3 at a frequency of 1.591 GHz, i.e. less than for NH3 by a factor of 14.95. The inversion can be stopped in NH3 by increasing the pressure to -2 atm. The corresponding figure for ND3 is -90mmHg (Le. again a factor of about 15). Ammonia is readily absorbed by H20 with considerable evolution of heat (-37.1 kJ per mol of NH3 gas). Aqueous solutions are weakly basic due to the equilibrium NHdaq) + H 20 K 298.2 HzO F==+ NHd'(aq) = + OH-(aq); moll-' = [NH4'][OH-]/[NH3] 1.81 x The equilibrium constant at room temperature corresponds to pKb = 4.74 and implies that a 1 molar aqueous solution of NH3 contains only 4.25 mmol I-' of NH4+ (or OH-). Such solutions do not contain the undissociated "molecule" NH40H, though weakly bonded hydrates have been isolated at low temperature: NH3.HzO (mp 194.15 K) and 2NH3.H20 (mp 194.32K) These hydrates are not ionically dissociated but contain chains of H20 molecules cross-linked by NH3 molecules into a three-dimensional Hbonded network. Ammonia bums in air with difficulty, the flammable limits being 16-25 ~01%.Normal combustion yields nitrogen but, in the presence of a Pt or Pt/Rh catalyst at 750-900"C, the reaction proceeds further to give the thermodynamically less-favoured products NO and N02: + 302 bum 2N2 + 6H2O W800" 4NH3 + 5 02 + N 0 + 6 H20 4 PU800" 2 N 0 + 0 2 + N02 2 4NH3 - 424 Nitrogen Cb. 11 These reactions are very important industrially in the production of HNO3 (p. 466). See also the industrial production of HCN by the Andrussov process (p. 321): 2NH3 3 02 2CH4 2HCN 6 H20. Gaseous NH3 bums with a greenish-yellow flame in Fz (or ClF3) to produce NF3 (p. 439). Chlorine yields several products depending on conditions: NH4C1, NHzC1, NHC12, NCl3, NC13.NH3, Nz and even small amounts of NzH4. The reaction to give chloramine, NH2C1, is important in urban and domestic water purification systems. Reactions with other nonmetals and their halides or oxides are equally complex and lead to a variety of compounds, many of which are treated elsewhere (pp. 497, 501, 506, 535, 723, etc.). At red heat carbon reacts with NH3 to give N h C N Hz, whereas phosphorus yields PH3 and Nz, and sulfur gives H2S and N4S4. Metals frequently react at higher temperature to give nitrides (p. 417). Of particular importance is the attack on Cu in the presence of oxygen (air) at room temperature since this precludes the use of this metal and its alloys in piping and valves for handling either liquid or gaseous NH3. Corrosion of Cu and brass by moist NH3/air mixtures and by air-saturated aqueous solutions of NH3 is also rapid. Contact with Ni and with polyvinylchloride plastics should be avoided for the same reason. + + + + Liquid ammonia as a s ~ l v e n t @ ~ - ~ ~ ) Liquid ammonia is the best-known and most widely studied non-aqueous ionizing solvent. Its most conspicuous property is its ability to W. L. JOLLY and C. J. HALLADA, Chap. 1 in T. C. WAD(ed.), Non-Aqueous Solvent Systems, pp. 1 -45, Academic Press, London. 1965. 6 5G. W. A. FOWLES, Chap. 7, in C. B. COLBURN (ed.), Developments in Inorganic Nitrogen Chemistry, pp. 522-76, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1966. 66 J. J. LAGOWSKI and G. A. MOCZYGEMBA, Chap. 7 in J. J. LAGOWSKI(ed.), The Chemistry of Non-aqueous Solvents, Vol. 2, pp. 320-71, Academic Press, 1967. 67 D. NICHOLLS, Inorganic Chemistry in Liquid Ammonia: Topics in Inorganic and General Chemistry, Monograph 17, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1979, 238 pp. DINGTON dissolve alkali metals to form highly coloured, electrically conducting solutions containing solvated electrons, and the intriguing physical properties and synthetic utility of these solutions have already been discussed (p. 77). Apart from these remarkable solutions, much of the chemistry in liquid ammonia can be classified by analogy with related reactions in aqueous solutions. Accordingly, we briefly consider in turn, solubility relationships, metathesis reactions, acid-base reactions, amphoterism, solvates and solvolysis, redox reactions and the preparation of compounds in unusual oxidation states. Comparison of the physical properties of liquid NH3 (p. 423) with those of water (p. 623) shows that NH3 has the lower mp, bp, density, viscosity, dielectric constant and electrical conductivity; this is due at least in part to the weaker H bonding in NH3 and the fact that such bonding cannot form cross-linked networks since each NH3 molecule has only 1 lone-pair of electrons compared with 2 for each H20 molecule. The ionic self-dissociation constant of liquid NH3 at -50°C is mol2 I-’. Most ammonium salts are freely soluble in liquid NH3 as are many nitrates, nitrites, cyanides and thiocyanates. The solubilities of halides tend to increase from the fluoride to the iodide; solubilities of salts of multivalent ions are generally low suggesting that (as in aqueous systems) lattice-energy and entropy effects outweigh solvation energies. The possibility of H-bond formation also influences solubility and, in the case of N&I, an X-ray singlecrystal analysis of the monosolvate shows the presence of an H-bonded cation NzH7+ with an N-H . . . N distance of 269 f5 pm.(68) Some typical solubilities at 25°C expressed as g per lOOg solvent are: N b O A c 253.2, NH4N03 389.6, LiN03 243.7, NaN03 97.6, KNO3 10.4, NaF 0.35, NaCl 3.0, NaBr 138.0, NaI 161.9, NaSCN 205.5. Some of these solubilities are astonishingly high, particularly when expressed as the number of moles of solute per 1Omol H. J. BERTHOLD, . PREIBSCH E. VONHOLDT, W and Angew. Chem. In?. Edn. Engl. 27, 1524-5 (1988). 577.3.2 Ammonia and ammonium salts NH3, e.g.: NH4N03 8.3, LiN03 6.1, NaSCN 4.3. Further data at 25" and other temperatures are in ref. 69. Metathesis reactions are sometimes the reverse of those in aqueous systems because of the differing solubility relations. For example because AgBr forms the complex ion [Ag(NH3)2]+ in liquid NH3 it is readily soluble, whereas BaBr2 is not, and can be precipitated: B a(N03)2 KdZn(NH2),I + 2NH4N03 liq NH, Zn(NHZ), + 2KN03 + 4NH3 - 425 + 2AgBr ----e+BaBr2J + 2AgN03 liq NH3 Solvates are perhaps less prevalent in compounds prepared from liquid ammonia solutions than are hydrates precipitated from aqueous systems, but large numbers of ammines are known, and their study formed the basis of Werner's theory of coordination compounds (1891 -5). Frequently, however, solvolysis (ammonolysis) occurs (cf. hydrolysis).(65)Examples are: Reactions analogous to the precipitation of AgOH and of insoluble oxides from aqueous solution are: AgNO, + NH3 ---+ M i 0 + NH3 ---+ M'H low temp MNH2 MNH2 0" + H2 + MOH 1200" + KNHz liq NH, AgNHz&+ KNo3 liq NH, 3Hg12 + 6KNH2 Hg3N2J. + 6KI + 4NH3 - Sic14 --+[Si(NH,),] --+ Si(NH)(NH,), --+ Si3N4 Acid-base reactions in many solvent systems can be thought of in terms of the characteristic cations and anions of the solvent (see also p. 831) solvent characteristic cation (acid) + characteristic anion (base) +H30+ + O H 2NH3 +NH4+ + NH22Hz0 On this basis NH4+ salts can be considered as solvo-acids in liquid NH3 and amides as solvobases. Neutralization reactions can be followed conductimetrically, potentiometrically or even with coloured indicators such as phenolphthalein: N b N 0 3 + KNH2 solvo-acid solvo-base liq NHs Amides are one of the most prolific classes of ligand and the subject of metal and metalloid amides has been extensively reviewed.(70) Redox reactions are particularly instructive. If all thermodynamically allowed reactions in liquid NH3 were kinetically rapid, then no oxidizing agent more powerful than N2 and no reducing agent more powerful than H2 could exist in this solvent. Using data for solutions at 25":(64) Acid soZutions (1 M N&+) NH4+ e- = NH3 i Hz 3NH4+ + + + i N2 + 3e- = 4NH3 + E" = 0.OV E" = -0.04V - KNO3+ 2NH3 salt solvent Basic solutions ( 1 M NHz-) ~ H Z E" = 1 .59V NH3 + e- = NH22NH3 i N2 3e- = 3NH2- E" = 1.55V + + Likewise, amphoteric behaviour can be observed. For example Zn(NH2)2 is insoluble in liquid NH3 (as is Zn(0H)Z in H20), but it dissolves on addition of the solvo-base KNH2 due to the formation of Kz[Zn(NH,),]; this in turn is decomposed by N&+ salts (solvo-acids) with reprecipitation of the amide: 69 K. JONES,Nitrogen, Chap. 19 in Comprehensive Inorganic Chemistry Vol. 2, pp. 147-388, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1973. Obviously, with a range of only 0.04 V available very few species are thermodynamically stable. However, both the hydrogen couple and the nitrogen couple usually exhibit "overvoltages" of -1 V , so that in acid solutions the practical range of potentials for solutes is from + l.O to -1.OV. Similarly in basic solutions the practical range 70 M. F. VASTAVA, LAPPERT, P. POWER,A. R. SANGER R. C. SRIP. and Metal and Metalloid Amides, Ellis Horwood Ltd., Chichester, 1980, 847 pp. (approximately 3000 references). 426 Nitrogen Ch. 1 1 extends from 2.6 to 0.6V. It is thus possible to work in liquid ammonia with species which are extremely strong reducing agents (e.g. alkali metals) and also with extremely strong oxidizing agents (e.g. permanganates, superoxides and ozonides; p. 609). For similar reasons the NO3ion is effectively inert towards NH3 in acid solution but in alkaline solutions Nz is slowly evolved: 3Kf a~etylides,(~l) e.g.: Ni( SCN),.6NH3 + SKC2Ph vac K2[Ni(C2Ph)4].2NH3 2KSCN K2[Ni(CzPh),].2NH3 yellow liq NH3 + 4NH3 K2[NiI1(C2Ph)4] + 2NH3 + + 3NH2- + 3N03- *3KOH.J + N2 + 3N02- + NH3 The use of liquid NH3 to prepare compounds of elements in unusual (low) oxidation states is exemplified by the successive reduction of Kz[Ni(CN)4] with Na/Hg in the presence of an excess of CN-: the dark-red dimeric Ni' complex &[Ni2(CN)6] is first formed and this can be further reduced to the yellow Nio complex &[Ni(CN),]. The corresponding complexes [Pd(CN)4I4- and [Pt(CN)4I4- can be prepared similarly, though there is no evidence in these latter systems for the formation of the M' dimer. A ditertiaryphosphine complex of Pdo has also been prepared: Other examples are orange-red K3[Cr1"(C~H)6], rose-pink Naz[Mn1'(CzMe)4], dark-green NQ[Co1'(C2Me)6], orange &[Nio(C2H)4], yellow &[Ni;(CzPh)6]. Such compounds are often explosive, though the analogues of Cu' and Zn" are not, e.g. yellow Na[Cu(CzMe)z], colourless K~[CU(CZH)~], colourless Kz[Zn(CzH)4]. and Ammonium halides have been used as versatile reagents in low-temperature solid-state redox and acid-base reactions.(72) For example, direct reaction with the appropriate metal at 270- 300" yields the ammonium salts of ZnC14'-, LaC1S2-, Y C ~ ~ Y -B, ~ ~ CUC~~'-, ~ ~P, etc., whereas ~ 2 0 3 yields either (NH4)3YBr6 or YOBr depending on the stoichiometric ratio of the reagents. Solidstate reactions of ammonium sulfate, nitrate, phosphates and carbonate have also been studied. 11.3.3 Other hydrides of nitrogen [Pd(1,2-(PEt2)2C6H4}~] 2NaBr [CO"'(CN)~]~- yields the pale-yellow complex [CO'(CN)~]~- the brown-violet comand plex [ C O ~ ( C N ) ~ ] ~ - the dimeric carbonyl (cf. [co~(co)~I>. Liquid NH3 is also extensively used as a preparative medium for compounds which are unstable in aqueous solutions, e.g.: 2Ph3GeNa + + Br(CH,),Br liq NH3 liq NH3 __f Ph3Ge(CH2),GePh3 + 2NaBr Me3SnX Nitrogen forms more than 20 binary compounds with hydrogen(73) of which ammonia (NH3, p. 420), hydrazine (N2H4, p. 427) and hydrogen azide (N3H, p. 432) are by far the most important. Hydroxylamine, NH2(0H), is closely related in structure and properties to both ammonia, NHz(H), and hydrazine, NHz(NH2) and it will be convenient to discuss this compound in the present section also (p. 431). Several protonated cationic species such as NH4+, NzHs+, etc, and deprotonated anionic species such as NHz-, N2H3-, etc. also exist but ammonium hydride, NH5, is unknown. Among 7 1 R. NAST and coworkers; for summary of results and detailed refs., see pp. 568-71 of ref. 65. 7 2 G . MEYER, . STAFFEL, T S.DOTSCHnd T. SCHLEID, a Inorg. Chem. 24, 3504-5 (1985). l 3Gmelin Handbook o Inorganic and Organometallic f Chemistry, 8th Edition, Nitrogen, Supplement B1, 280 pp., Supplement B2, 188 pp., Springer Verlag, Berlin, 1993. + NaPEt, +Me3SnPEt2 + 2NaX Alkali metal acetylides M2C2, MCCH and MCCR can readily be prepared by passing C2Hz or C2HR into solutions of the alkali metal in liquid NH3, and these can be used to synthesize a wide range of transition-element 511.3.3 Other hydrides of nitrogen Table 11.3 Some physical and thermochemical properties of hydrazine MPPC BPPC Density/(solid at - 5")/g cm-3 Density (liquid at 25")/g cm-3 q(25")/centipoi~e(~) Refractive index rzg (a)1 427 2.0 113.5 1.146 1.oo 0.9 1.470 Dielectric constant ~(25") ~ (25")/0hm-' cm-' AHcombustionlkJ mol-' AH;(25")/kJ mol-' AG; (25")/kJ mol-' s"(25")/J K-' mol-' 51.7 -2.5 x 621.5 50.6 149.2 121.2 centipoise = l op3kg m-' s-' . the less familiar (and less stable) neutral radicals which have been well characterized are the imidogen (NH), amidogen (NHz), diazenyl (N2H) and hydrazyl (N2H3) radicals. Such species are important in atmospheric chemistry and in combustion reactions. Of the neutral compounds the following can be mentioned:(73) N2H2: trans-diazene, HN=NH (yellow), and its 1:l isomer, H2N=N N3H: hydrogen azide (p. 432) and cyclotriazene (triazairine). N=N-NH N3H3: triazene, HN=N-NH2 and cyclotriazane (triaziridene) c-(NH)3 N3H5: triazane (aminohydrazine), H2NN(H)NH2 N4H4: trans-2-tetrazene, H2N-N =N-NH2, (colourless, low-melting crystals, N -N 143pm, N=N 121pm). and ammonium azide, NH4N3 (white crystals, subl. 133°C d 1.350 g cmP3) N4H6: tetrazane, HzNN(H)N(H)NHz, (bright yellow solid) N5H5: hydrazinium azide, N2H5N3, (explosive white crystals) N6H2: Probably a cyclic dimer of N3H N7H9: hydrazinium azide monohydrazinate, N2H5N3-N2H4 N9H3: cyclic trimer of N3H, i.e. 1,3,5-N6(NH)3 I detectable at a concentration of 70-80ppm. Many of its physical properties (Table 11.3) are remarkably similar to those of water (p. 623); comparisons with NH3 (p. 423) H202 (p. 634) are also instructive, and the influence of H bonding is apparent. In the gas phase four conformational isomers are conceivable (Fig. 11.5) but the large dipole (1.85 D) clearly eliminates the staggered trans-conformation; electron diffraction data (and infrared) indicate the gauche-conformation with an angle of rotation of 90-95" from the eclipsed position. The most effective preparative routes to hydrazine are still based on the process introduced by F. Raschig in 1907: this involves the reaction of ammonia with an alkaline solution of sodium hypochlorite in the presence of gelatin or glue. The overall reaction can be written as 2NH3 + NaOCl aqueous alkali N2H4 + NaCl + H20 (1) but it proceeds in two main steps. First there is a rapid formation of chloramine which proceeds to completion even in the cold: NH3 + OC1- --+ NH2Clf OH- (2) Hydrazine (74) Anhydrous Nz& is a fuming, colourless liquid with a faint ammoniacal odour which is first W. S CHMIDT,Hydrazine and its Derivatives. Preparation, Properties, Applicarion Wiley, Chichester, 1984, 1059 pp. (over 4400 references). 74 E . The chloramine then reacts further to produce N2H4 either by slow nucleophilic attack of NH3 (3a) and subsequent rapid neutralization (3b), or by preliminary rapid formation of the chloramide ion (4a) followed by slow nucleophilic attack of NH3 (4b): NH2CI + NH3 N2Hs+ slow fast N2Hs+ + OH- + C1N2H4 + H 20 (3a) (3b) 428 Nitrogen Ch. 1 1 Figure 11.5 Possible conformations of N2H4 with pyramidal N . Hydrazine adopts the gauche Cz form with N -N 145pm, H -N-H 108", and a twist angle of 95" as shown in the lower diagram. +H20 slow NHCI- + NH3 +N2H4 + C1- NH2Cl + OH- +NHCl- fast (4a) (4b) When ignited, N2H4 bums rapidly and completely in air with considerable evolution of heat (see Panel): N2H4(1) In addition there is a further rapid but undesirable reaction with chloramine which destroys the N2H4 produced: + 02(g) --+ N2(g> 2H20; AH = -621.5kJmol-' + (5) This reaction is catalysed by traces of heavy metal ions such as Cu" and the purpose of the gelatin is to suppress reaction ( 5 ) by sequestering the metal ions; it is probable that gelatin also assists the hydrazine-forming reactions between ammonia and chloramine in a way that is not fully understood. The industrial preparation and uses of N2H4 are summarized in the Panel. At room temperature, pure N2H4 and its aqueous solutions are kinetically stable with respect to decomposition despite the endothermic nature of the compound and its positive free energy of formation: N2(g) + 2Hz(g) + 2H4(1); A H; = 50.6Mmol-' N AG; = 149.2kJmol-' N2H4 + 2NH2Cl fast 2NH4Cl+ N2 In solution, N2H4 is oxidized by a wide variety of oxidizing agents (including 02) and it finds use as a versatile reducing agent because of the variety of reactions it can undergo. Thus the thermodynamic reducing strength of N2H4 depends on whether it undergoes a 1 -, 2-, or 4-electron oxidation and whether this is in acid or alkaline solution. Typical examples in acid solution are as f ollows:~ I-electron change (e.g. using Fe"', Ce'" , or Mn04-): 7 See p. 435 for discussion of standard electrode potentials and their use. It is conventional to write the halfreactions as (oxidized form) n e- = (reduced form). Since A G = - nE"F at unit activities, it follows that the reactions will occur spontaneously in the reverse direction to that written when E" is negative, i.e. hydrazine is oxidized by the reagents listed. + $1 1 3 3 .. Other hydrides of nitrogen 429 Industrial Production and Uses of Hydrazine(75) Hydrazine is usually prepared in a continuous process based on the Raschig reaction. Solutions of ammonia and sodium hypochlorite (301) are mixed in the cold with a gelatin solution and then passed rapidly under pressure through a reactor at 150” (residence time 1 s). This results in a 60% conversion based on hypochlorite and produces a solution of - 0.5% by weight of N2&. The excess of NH3 and steam are stripped off in stages and the solution finally at ln distilled to give pure hydrazine hydrate Nz&.H20 (mp -51.7”, bp 118.5”. d 1 .0305g~m-~ 21”). In the Oi Mathieson variation of this process, NHzCI is preformed from NH3 NaOCl ( 3:l) and then anhydrous N H 3 is injected to a ratio of -301; this simultaneously r aises the temperature and pressure in the reactor. An alternative industrial route, which is economical only for smaller plants, uses urea instead of ammonia in a process very similar to Raschig’s: + (NH2)zCO + NaOCl + 2NaOH rapid heat/ protein inhibitor N2H4.HzO + NaCl + NazC03 Hydrazine hydrate contains 64.0% by weight of NzI& and is frequently preferred to the pure compound not only because it is cheaper but also because its much lower mp avoids problems of solidification. Anhydrous Nz& can be obtained from concentrated aqueous solutions by distillation in the presence of dehydrating agents such as solid NaOH or KOH. Alternatively, hydrazine sulfate can be precipitated from dilute aqueous solutions using dilute H2SO4 and the precipitate treated with liquid NH3 to liberate the hydrazine: World production capacity of hydrazine solutions in 1995 (expressed as N 2 b ) was about 4OOOO tonnes, predominantly in USA 16500 t, Germany 6400 t, Japan 6600 t and France 6100 t. In addtion some 3200 t of anhydrous N2H4 was manufactured in USA for rocket fuels. The major use (non-commercial) of anhydrous Nz& and its methyl derivatives MeNHNH2 and Me2NNH2 is as a rocket fuel in guided missiles, space shuttles, lunar missions, etc. For example the Apollo lunar modules were decelerated on landing and powered on blast-off for the return journey by the oxidation of a 1:1 mixture of MeNHNH2 and Me2NNH2 with liquid N204; the landing required some 3 tonnes of fuel and 4.5 tonnes of oxidizer, and the relaunching about onethird of this amount. Other oxidants used are &, H2&. m 3 or even Fz. Space vehicles propelled by anhydrous N2& 0, itself include the Viking Lander on Mars, the Pioneer and Voyager interplanetary probes and the Giotto space probe to Halley’s comet -.%. The major commercial applications of hydrazine solutions are as blowing agents ( 4 0 ) agricultural chemicals (-25%). medicinals ( -5%). and - increasingly - in boiler water treatment now as much as 20%. The detailed pattern of usage, of course, depends to some extent on the country concerned. Aqueous solutions of N2HQ are versatile and attractive reducing agents. They have long been used to prepare silver (and copper) mirrors, to precipitate many elements (such as the platinum metals) from solutions of their compounds, and in other analytical applications. A major application as noted above is now in the treatment of high-pressure boiler water: this was first introduced in about 1945 and has the following advantages over the previously favoured Na2S03: (a) N2H4 is completely miscible with H 2 0 and reacts with dissolved 0 2 to give merely N 2 and H2O N2H4 9 + 2 2H20 N (b) N2H4 does not increase the dissolved solids (cf. NazS03) since N2H4 itself and all its reaction and decomposition products are volatile. (c) These products are either alkaline (like N2H4) or neutral, but never acidic. (d) N2& is also a corrosion inhibitor (by reducing Fez03 to har& coherent Fe304) and it is therefore useful for stand-by and idle boilers. + + The usual concentration of 9in boiler feed water is -0.01 ppm so that, even allowing for a twofold excess, 1 kg N2H4 is sufficient to treat SOOOO tonnes of feed water (say -4 days’ supply at the rate of 5 00 tonnes per hour). Hydrazine and its derivativesfind considerable use in the synthesisof biologically active materials, dyestuff intermediates and other organic derivatives. Reactions of aldehydes to form hydrazides (RCH=NNHz) and azines (RCH=NN=CHR) are well known in organic chemistry, as is the use of hydrazine and its derivatives in the synthesis of heterocyclic compounds. f ”Hydrazine and its derivatives, K irk-Othmer Encyclopedia o Chemical Technology, 4th edn., Vol. 13, pp. 560-606 (1995). 430 NH4' Nitrogen Ch. 11 + i N2 + HC + e- = N 2H5+; E" = - 1.74V 2-electron change (e.g. using H202 or HN02): iNH4' + iHN3 + ;H+ + 2e= NzH5'; = N2H5'; E" = + O.llV 4-electron change (e.g. using IO3- or 12): N2 + 5H+ + 4e- E" = -0.23 V For basic solutions the corresponding reduction potentials are: NH3 + i N2 + H 2 0 + e- = N2H4 + OH-; E" = - 2.42V = N2H4 I 7NH3 + iN3- + z H20 + 2eN2 + ;OH-; E" = - 0.92V + 4 H20 + 4e- = N2H4 + 4 0H-; E" = - 1.16V In the 4-electron oxidation of acidified NzH4 to N2, it has been shown by the use of N2H4 isotopically enriched in 15N that both the N atoms of each molecule of N2 originated in the same molecule of N2H4. This reaction is also the basis for the most commonly used method for the analytical determination of N2H4 in dilute aqueous solution: Nz& + KIO3 + 2HC1 H20/CC14 = 8.5 x of salts are known, e.g. N2H5Cl and N2H6C12. (It will be noticed that N2H6'+ is isoelectronic with ethane.) H bonding frequently influences the crystal structure and this is particularly noticeable in N2H6F2 which features a layer lattice similar to CdI2 though the structure is more open and the fluoride ions are not close packed. Sulfuric acid forms three salts, N~H4.nHzS04 (n = 1, 2), i.e. [N2H5]2S04, [N2H6]S04 and [N2H61[HS0412Hydrazido(2-)-complexes of Mo and W have been prepared by protonating dinitrogen complexes with concentrated solutions of HX and by ligand exchange.(76) For example several dozen complexes of general formulae [MXz(NNHz)L3] and truns-[MX(NNH2)L4]have been characterized for M = Mo; X = halogen; L = phosphine or heterocyclic-N donor. Similarly, cis-[W(N2)2(PMe2Ph)4] afforded truns[WF(NNH2)(PMe2Ph)4][BF4] when treated with HF/MeOH in a borosilicate glass vessel. Sideon coordination of a phenylhydrazido( 1-) ligand has also been established in compounds such as the dark-red [W(y5-C5H5)2(r2-H2NNPh)l[BF4];(77) these are synthesized by the ready isomerization of the first-formed yellow y arylhydrazido(2-) tungsten hydride complex above -20" (X = BF4, PF6): i, '- N2 + KC1 + IC1 + 3H20 Yellow IO" The 1 0 3 - is first reduced to I2 which is subsequently oxidized to IC1 by additional IO3-; the end-point is detected by the complete discharge of the iodine colour from the CCk phase. As expected, N2H4 in aqueous solutions is somewhat weaker as a base than is ammonia (p. 423): N2&(aq) Dark red + HzO = N2H5+ + OH-; K250 moll-' In these reactions R = Ph, p-MeOC&, pMeC6H4 or p-FC6H4. Further bonding modes are as an isodiazene (i.e. M t N = N M e 2 rather than M = N - N M ~ z ) ( ~ ~ ) as a bridging diimido and 76J. CHAT, A. J. PEARMAN R . L. RICHARDS, Chem. and J. 1766-76 (1978). 7 7J. A. CARROLL,. SUTON, M. COWIEand M. D. GAUD THIER, J . Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun., 1058-9 (1979). 78 J. R. DILWORTH,ZUBIETA J. R. HYDE, . Am. Chem. J. and J SOC.104, 365-7 (1982). Soc., Dalton Trans., NzHS'(aq) + H2O = N2H6'+ + OH-; K250 = 8.9 x mol I-' The hydrate N2H4.H20 is an H-bonded molecular adduct and is not ionically dissociated. Two series 911.3.3 Other hydrides of nitrogen 431 group (MEN-N=M).'~~) Both hydrazine itself and its dianion, HNNH2-, act as bridging ligands in the pale yellow dinuclear tungsten(V1) complex shown in Fig. 11.6.@') A selection of further recent work on the various coordination modes of substituted hydrazido, diazenido and related ligands is appended.@') 1 H has been replaced by OH. Aqueous solutions are less basic than either ammonia or hydrazine: NHzOH(aq) + H 20 = NH30Hf + OH-; x K250 = 6.6 mol 1-I Hydroxylamine can be prepared by a variety of reactions involving the reduction of nitrites, nitric acid or NO, or by the acid hydrolysis of nitroalkanes. In the conventional Raschig synthesis, an aqueous solution of NH4NOz is reduced with HS04-/S02 at 0" to give the hydroxylamido-N,N-disulfate nion which is a then hydrolysed stepwise to hydroxylammonium sulfate: NbNOz + 2S02 + NH3 + H 20 [NH4Jz[N(OH)(OSOz)zl [NH4J+z[N(OH)(OSO~)zJ2- Hz0 + Figure 11.6 Structure of [{W(NPh)Me3}z(p-q1,q1- - + NHzNHz)(p-q2,q2-NHNH)]. [NH4J[NH(OH)(OSOz)I + [N&I[HS04J 2[NH4]+[NH(OH)(OSO,)]- + 2H20 + [NH3(OH)Iz[S041+ [NH41z[S041 Hydroxy/amine Anhydrous NHzOH is a colourless, thermally unstable hygroscopic compound which is usually handled as an aqueous solution or in the form of one of its salts. The pure compound (mp 32.05"C, d 1.204 g cm-3 at 33°C) has a very high dielectric constant (77.63-77.85) and a vapour pressure of 10mmHg at 47.2'. It can be regarded as water in which 1 H has been replaced by the more electronegative NH; group or as NH3 in which 7 9 M . R. CHURCHILL and H. J. WASSERMAN, Inorg. Chem. 20, 2899-904 (1981). 'OL. BLUM, I. D. WILLIAMS and R. R. SCHROCK,. Am. J Chem. SOC. 106, 8316-7 (1984). K. and M. D. FITZROY,J. M. FREDERIKSEN, S . MURRAY M. R. SNOW, Inorg. Chem. 24, 3265-70 (1985). J. BIJLTTUDE, L. F. LARKWORTHY, C. POVEY, G. W. SMITH, D. J. R. DILWORTH G. J. LEIGH, . Chem. Soc., Chem. Comand J mun., 1748-50 (1986). J. R. DILWORTH,. A . HENDERSON, R P. DAHLSTROM, NICHOLSON J . S . ZUBIETA,. Chem. T. and J S OC., Dalton Trans., 529-40 (1987). T. NICHOLSON and J. ZUBIETA,olyhedron 7 , 171-85 (1988). F. W. EINSTEIN, P X . YAN and D. SUTTON, . Chem. SOC., Chem. Commun., J 1466-7 (1990). Aqueous solutions of NHzOH can then be obtained by ion exchange, or the free compound can be prepared by ammonolysis with liquid NH3; insoluble ammonium sulfate is filtered off and the excess of NH3 removed under reduced pressure to leave solid NH20H. Alternatively, hydroxylammonium salts can be made either (a) by the electrolytic reduction of aqueous nitric acid between amalgamated lead electrodes in the presence of H2S04/HCl, or (b) by the hydrogenation of nitric oxide in acid solutions over a P tkharcoal catalyst: (a) HN03(aq)+6H+(aq) (b) 2NO(g) + 3H2(g>+ H2S04(aq) -6e- 2 H20 + NH20H HCW [NHdOH)ICl(S> wc [NH3(0H)]zS04 A convenient laboratory route involves the reduction of an aqueous solution of nitrous acid or potassium nitrite with bisulfite under carefully 432 Nitrogen Ch. 11 controlled conditions: The hydroxylamidodisulfate first formed, though stable in alkaline solution, rapidly hydrolyses to the monosulfate in acid solution and this can then subsequently be hydrolysed to the hydroxylammonium ion by treatment with aqueous HCl at 100" for 1 h: HN02 + 2HS03- - [N(OH)(OS02),12- + H20 +[NH(OH)(OSO,)]- fast [NH(OH)(OSO,)]- + H30+ lOO"11 h - + [HS04]- [NH3(OH)]+ + [HS041- Anhydrous NH20H can be prepared by treating a suspension of hydroxylammonium chloride in butanol with NaOBu: [NH3(OH)]Cl+ NaOBu +NH20H + NaCl + BuOH The NaCl is removed by filtration and the NH20H precipitated by addition of Et20 and cooling. NH20H can exist as 2 configurational isomers (cis and trans) and in numerous intermediate gauche conformations as shown in Fig. 11.7. In the crystalline form, H bonding appears to favour packing in the trans conformation. The N - 0 distance is 147 pm consistent with its formulation as a single bond. Above room temperature the compound decomposes (sometimes explosively) by internal oxidation-reduction reactions into a complex mixture of N2, NH3, N2O and H20. Aqueous solutions are much more stable, particularly acid solutions in which the compound is protonated, [NH3(0H)lf. Such solutions can act as oxidizing agents particularly when acidified but are more generally used as reducing agents, e.g. as antioxidants in photographic developers, stabilizers of monomers, and for reducing Cu" to Cu' in the dyeing of acrylic fibres. Comparisons with the redox chemistry of H202 and N2H4 are also instructive (see, for example, pp. 272-3 of ref. 69). The ability of NH2OH to react with N20, NO and N204 under suitable conditions (e.g. as the sulfate adsorbed on silica gel) makes i t useful as an absorbent in combustion analysis. However, the major use of NHzOH, which derives from its ability to form oximes with aldehydes and ketones, is in the manufacture of caprolactam, a key intermediate in the production of polyamide-6 fibres such as nylon. This consumes more than 97% of world production of NH20H, which is at least 650000 tonnes per annum. The extensive chemistry of the hydroxylamides of sulfuric acid is discussed later in the context of other H-N-0-S compounds (pp. 740-6). Hydrogen azide Aqueous solutions of HN3 were first prepared in 1890 by T. Curtius who oxidized aqueous hydrazine with nitrous acid: N2H5' + HN02 ---+ HN3 + Hf + 2H20 Other oxidizing agents that can be used include nitric acid, hydrogen peroxide, peroxydisulfate, chlorate and the pervanadyl ion. The anhydrous Figure 11.7 Configurations of NH20H. $1 1 3 3 .. Other hydrides of nitrogen 433 compound is extremely explosive and even dilute solutions should be treated as potentially hazardous. Pure HN3 is best prepared by careful addition of H2S04 to NaN3; it is a colourless liquid or gas (mp -go", estimated bp 35.7", d 1.126 g cm-3 at 0"). Its large positive enthalpy and free energy of formation emphasize its inherent instability: A Hi(1, 298 K ) 269.5, AG; (1, 298 K ) 3 27.2kJmol-*. It has a repulsive, intensely irritating odour and is a deadly (though non-cumulative) poison; even at concentrations less than 1 ppm in air it can be dangerous. In the gas phase the 3 N atoms are (almost) colinear, as expected for a 16 valence-electron species, and the angle HNN is 109"; the two N-N distances are appreciably different, as shown in structure (1). The structure and dimensions of the isomeric molecule cyclotriazene are given in (2) for comparison; the N-H bond is tilted out of the plane of the N3 ring by 74". - In these compounds the N3 group behaves as a pseudohalogen (p. 319) and, indeed, the unstable compounds FN3, ClN3, BrN3, IN3 and NCN3 are known, though potential allotropes of nitrogen such as N3-N3 (analogous to Clz) and N(N3)3 (analogous to NC13) have not been isolated. More complex heterocyclic compounds are, however, well established, e.g. cyanuric azide { -NC(N3)-}3, B,B,B-triazidoborazine { -NB(N3)-}3 and even the azidophosphazene derivative { -NP(N3)2-}3. Most preparative routes to HN3 and its derivatives involve the use of NaN3 since this is reasonably stable and commercially available. NaN3 can be made by adding powdered NaN03 to fused NaNH2 at 175" or by passing N20 into the same molten amide at 190": NaN03 + 3NaNHz N20 + 2NaNH2 - + 3NaOH + NH3 NaN3 + NaOH + NH3 NaN3 N m * N Np m 116 p 101 p m The latter reaction is carried out on an industrial scale using liquid NH3 as solvent; a variant uses Na/NH3 without isolation of the NaNH2: 3 N20 m N l w 1Z 05" H + 4Na + NH3 +NaN3 + 3NaOH + 2N2 Similar differences are found for organic azides (e.g. MeN3). In ionic azides (p. 417) the N3ion is both linear and symmetrical (both N-N distances being 116pm) as befits a 16-electron species isoelectronic with CO2 (cf. also the cyanamide ion NCN2-, the cyanate ion NCO-, the fulminate ion CNO- and the nitronium ion N02+). Aqueous solutions of HN3 are about as strongly acidic as acetic acid: HNdaq) = H f(aq) + N3-(aq); A remarkable new covalent azide is the pale yellow nitrosyl NNNNO, prepared by reacting gaseous NOCl (p. 441) with solid NaN3 at low temperature.(s4) NNNN(S02F)z has also very recently been made by a similar route from (S02F)2NCl; it is a volatile yellow liquid which sometimes decomposes explosively.(84a) The major use of inorganic azides exploits the explosive nature of heavy metal azides. Pb(N3)z in particular is extensively used in detonators because of its reliability, especially in damp conditions; i t is prepared by metathesis between Pb(N03)~ and NaN3 i n aqueous solution. 276-93 of ref. 69. A . D. YOFFE, Chap. 2 in C. B. COLBURN (ed.), D evelopments in Inorganic Nitrogen Chemistly, Vol. 1, pp. 72-149, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1966. R 4 A . SCHULZ, C . TORNIEPORTH-OETTING M . KLAPI. and T. OTKE, A ngew. Chem. Int. Edn. Engl. 3 2, 1610- 12 (1993). 84a H. HOLFTER, . M. KLAPOTKE nd A . SCHULZ, olyheT a P dron 15, 1405-7 (1996). 83 82 Pp. K , 1.8 x pK, 4.77 at 298 K Numerous metal azides have been characterized (p. 417) and covalent derivatives of non-metals are also readily preparable by simple metathesis using either NaN3 or aqueous solutions of Next Page ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/20/2010 for the course AS a taught by Professor 11 during the Spring '10 term at École Normale Supérieure.

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