Intro and Earthquakes

Intro and Earthquakes - NaturalHazards,RisksandDisasters...

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Natural Hazards, Risks and Disasters Mother nature vs. Human nature Hazard - process, substance or action that can cause disease, injury or economic loss or  enviormental damage. -Likelihood of occurrence           think about BOTH -Location and magnitude( size) Risk - chance we take and exposure of population and facilities to hazards -Dependent on hazard and consequences that such an event could cause -Hazard x Exposure= Risk Disaster - hazardous event that causes significant loss of life and/or property such as a  hurricane Katrina and a tsunami Types of Hazards Physical or Natural Geological- earth Meteorological- weather Chemical- hazardous chemical spill Biological- swine flu Cultural- gangs/war Increasing Costs and Disasters -Greater exposure there is a larger population and higher density of people in cities and greater  concentration in vulnerable areas -The number one hazards are earthquakes and tornadoes because they are the most frequent -Why do people choose to live where natural hazards occur? 
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-Why has damage from natural hazards increased during the 20 th  century? Hazard Assessment -Evaluate nature of hazard -Type of event -Frequency for given size -When is hazard expected - The impact of a disaster on More Developed Countries is property damage as opposed to  Less Developed Countries where the impact is loss of loss -What can we do to minimize impact of natural hazards? Long Term Hazard Prediction -Study historic and prehistoric occurrence -Time scale of occurrences such as months for weather, years for flood and decades or more  for EQ’s -Irregularity of occurrence- define range of frequencies and averages or values that may be  exceeded with certain frequency Short Term Forecasting -Understanding of physical process  -Potential to minimize exposure of people for ex. evacuate people in a wildfire Hazard Mitigation -Engineering “solutions” reduce likelihood of the same events -Minimize exposure whether or not hazard can be controlled such as zoning laws in harmful  areas
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Risk Assessment -Societal determination -Depends on hazard and perception -Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) does research and works with the govt. and  planning and also provides education programs -Prediction of likelihood of events by agencies such as USGS and National Weather Service Approaches to Risk Mitigation -Minimize exposure to hazard -Planning- allowable development -Construction practices and building codes -Insurance to limit economic exposure (loss) Earthquakes:  Causes and Effects -In 1971 there was a big earthquake a thrust earthquake and the damage was so great that is  changed building codes and they learned they needed to reinforce buildings
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This note was uploaded on 02/21/2010 for the course GEOL 116 taught by Professor Kruger during the Spring '09 term at Binghamton.

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Intro and Earthquakes - NaturalHazards,RisksandDisasters...

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