chem456_ch1 lecture - Thermodynamics: Outline Basic...

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1 Thermodynamics: Outline • Basic Definitions to keep track of –Ma s s – Energy • The States of Matter – The Greek picture and the Thermodynamics Picture • The Ideal Gas – Built from Newton’s Laws (compare and contrast) – Compare with Real Gas • Dalton’s Law of partial pressure.
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2 Branch of science that describes the behavior of matter and the transformation between different forms of energy on a macroscopic scale (human scale and larger). Uses of thermodynamics •enables one to derive relationships that quantitatively describe the nature of the conversion of energy from one form into another •can be used to predict the equilibrium state of a reactive mixture as well as the natural direction of change in a system not at equilibrium •thermodynamics can’t predict how long it takes for equilibrium to be reached Thermodynamics:
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3 Macroscopic models specify the minimum number of system variables needed to describe the system and provide relationships between these variables. •experiments on dilute gases show that only pressure, P , the temperature, T , the number of moles of the gas, n , and the gas volume, V needed to describe system. •Equation of state links system variables intensive variable is independent of the size of the system, and extensive variable proportional to the size of the system PV NkT nRT == m RT PR T V ρ 3 independent variables 2 independent variables He vs NH 3 ? Variables
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4 A thermodynamic system is defined as all the materials involved in the process under study (i.e. electrochemical cell or beaker contents) •the rest of the universe is referred to as the surroundings •If a system can exchange matter with the surroundings, it is called an open system ; if not, it is a closed system •Both open and closed systems can exchange energy with the surroundings •Systems that can exchange neither matter nor energy with the surroundings are called isolated systems
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5 Consider the Earth's oceans as a system, with the rest of the universe being the surroundings. The wall consists of the solid-liquid interface between the continents and the ocean
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This note was uploaded on 02/21/2010 for the course CHEM 11773 taught by Professor Robinson during the Spring '10 term at University of Washington.

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chem456_ch1 lecture - Thermodynamics: Outline Basic...

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