#2 PH 150A Jan22 Patterns, Objectives, Surveillance

#2 PH 150A Jan22 Patterns, Objectives, Surveillance -...

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Unformatted text preview: Introduction to Patterns of Disease, Health Objectives and Surveillance Lecture 2 PH 150A: Introduction to Epidemiology Spring 2010 1 Goal of Epidemiology: Prevent and Treat Disease Identify causes and risk factors Determine extent in community Study natural history and prognosis Evaluate interventions Provide data for public policy Session Objectives Explore patterns in human disease Compare leading causes of death by who, when and where Epidemiological surveillance Epidemiology and health objectives 3 A Principle of Epidemiology Disease in population not randomly distributed follows predictable patterns A goal of epidemiology is to discern these patterns 4 Important Terms Endemic- usual occurrence of a disease within a given geographic area Epidemic- the occurrence of a group of similar illnesses in a given community that is in excess of normal expected disease levels Pandemic- worldwide epidemic 5 Endemic v. Epidemic Gordis. Figure 2-6 (p. 18) 6 Assessing Disease in a Population Describe data Interpret Patterns What disease/condition is present in excess? Who is ill? Where do they live? When did they become ill? Why did they become ill? 7 8 SES total % dead total % dead total % dead total % dead High 175 67.4 144 2.8 6-- 325 37.5 Med 168 91.7 93 14.0 24-- 285 58.6 Low 462 83.8 165 53.9 79 65.8 706 74.8 Other 885 78.3 23 13.0-- 908 76.6 Total 1690 80.0 425 25.6 109 47.7 2224 68.0 Adult Adult Children Total males females Population at Risk, Deaths, and Death Rates for an Unusual Episode 9 Reading Tabulated Data Notice the size of the total population, total number who died and proportion of total who died. Check overall patterns [number and death rate (mortality) for each exposure category separately, notice marginal row and column totals and rates] Examine subgroups according to gender, SES and age. Calculate what is not shown in the table. 10 SES total % dead total % dead total % dead total % dead High 175 67.4 144 2.8 6-- 325 37.5 Med 168 91.7 93 14.0 24-- 285 58.6 Low 462 83.8 165 53.9 79 65.8 706 74.8 Other 885 78.3 23 13.0-- 908 76.6 Total 1690 80.0 425 25.6 109 47.7 2224 68.0 Adult Adult Children Total males females Population at Risk, Deaths, and Death Rates for an Unusual Episode 11 What do you notice about? The sex distribution (numbers of men and women)? The age distribution (numbers of adults and children)? The socioeconomic distribution (SES) - numbers in each SES group? Total population at risk is 2224. 12 Proportions The sex distribution (numbers of men and women): More men than women: 1690/2224=76% of population are men; only 19% women The age distribution (numbers of adults and children): very few children, only 5% of total population The socioeconomic distribution (SES): More low SES than other groups, 53.6% low SES [when “Other” undefined and presumably low SES removed from total population leaving a total population of 1316]...
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This note was uploaded on 02/21/2010 for the course PH 150A taught by Professor Adams during the Spring '08 term at Berkeley.

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#2 PH 150A Jan22 Patterns, Objectives, Surveillance -...

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