#8 PH150A Feb5 TB (Dr. Riley)

#8 PH150A Feb5 TB (Dr. Riley) - Ali Mao M aalin Polio...

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1 Ali Mao Maalin In collaboration with: World Health Organization Rotary International CDC UNICEF Polio Eradication www.polioeradication.org Ten Great Public Health Achievements-- United States, 1900-1999 Vaccination Motor-vehicle safety Safer workplaces Control of infectious diseases Decline in death from coronary heart disease and stroke Safer and healthier foods Healthier mothers and babies Family planning Fluoridation of drinking water Recognition of tobacco use as a health hazard Infectious disease epidemiology MPH, PhD, MD, and combination of these Academic research and teaching Public health departments (local, state, national): – CDC training programs for MPH graduates – CDC training for MDs, PhDs (Epidemiologic intelligence service, EIS) Foundations (Gates, Rotary International, GAVI) Industry (designing and conducting clinical trials; data management) International health organizations (WHO, PAHO)
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2 International Public Health An introduction to international initiatives to combat vaccine-preventable diseases Brendan Flannery, Consultant for Immunizations Pan American Health Organization, Brazil UC Berkeley – 21 january 2010 The “Big 3” •AIDS •Malaria •Tuberculosis What do we now know about TB? • Agent of disease • Modes of transmission • Reservoir • Disease occurrence by geography • Disease occurrence by demographic characteristics • Risk factors for transmission • Risk factors for active disease • Mechanism of drug resistance (for some drugs) • How to diagnose • How to treat • How to prevent (to a limited extent) What don’t we know now about TB? • Correlates of virulence or virulence factors • Mechanism of active disease • Mechanism of latency • Mechanism of reactivation from latency • Correlates of protection • Mechanism of drug resistance (for most drugs) • How to diagnose efficiently and effectively • How to treat efficiently and effectively • How to prevent efficiently and effectively Tuberculosis: overview • 4 people die every minute somewhere in the world from TB • 1/3 of the world’s population is infected with M . tuberculosis , the bacterium that causes TB • 8 million new cases of TB occur each year • 2-3 million die from the disease • TB is the most common cause of death from an infectious agent in adults, after HIV • More people with HIV infection die of TB than any other opportunistic infection TB—global situation, cont. • More women die from TB than all maternal causes of death put together • More people died of TB at the end of 20 th century than at the end of 19 th century • In 1993, WHO declared TB a global emergency, the only disease ever to receive this recognition
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3 Epidemiology: TB in the United States Reported TB Cases* United States, 1982–2008 Year No. of Cases *Updated as of May 20, 2009. TB Morbidity
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This note was uploaded on 02/21/2010 for the course PH 150A taught by Professor Adams during the Spring '08 term at University of California, Berkeley.

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#8 PH150A Feb5 TB (Dr. Riley) - Ali Mao M aalin Polio...

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