PH150a_Feb19_MidTerm1Review

PH150a_Feb19_MidTerm1Review - PH 150A Spring 2010 Midterm...

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1 PH 150A Spring 2010 Midterm Review
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2 Epidemiology • “the study of the distribution and determinants of health related states or events in specified populations and the application of this study to control of health problems.”
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3 Epidemiological Approach Analyzes the cause (or treatment) of disease and tests interventions to prevent (or treat) it 1. Determine if exposure is associated with disease outcome 2. Determine if the relationship is causal 3. If so, intervene to control and prevent the outcome
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4 Pre 20 th Health Century Conditions • Contaminated food and water • Nutritional deficiencies • Crowding and poor sewage disposal • Primitive medical care
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5 Epidemiological Transition As income/development increases: • Childhood survival improves • Fertility decreases • Greater % of population ages • Causes of death shift from infectious to chronic diseases
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6 Epidemiological Surveillance • A routine, on-going system that: • Estimates the magnitude of health problem • Documents distribution of the problem • Evaluates control strategies • Examples in the US: Reportable Infectious Diseases, Vital Statistics (birth or death certificates), Disease Registries, Health Surveys
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7 Surveillance: What is the problem? Risk Factors:What is the cause? Intervention: What works? Implementation: How do you do it? Problem Response Public Health Approach
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8 Some Epidemiological Principles of Disease • Understanding the natural history of a disease allows better chances of preventing it • Prevention can occur at several stages • Disease results from an interaction between host, agent and environment • Disease can have one cause or many different causes
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9 Susceptibility Sub-clinical Clinical Recovery, Disability or Death Exposure Pathologic Changes Symptom Onset Usual Time of Diagnosis Page et al, 1995 Natural History of Disease
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10 Primary Prevention • Prevents the onset of a targeted condition, help avoid a health problem. (passive and active immunization against disease, health education such as promoting the use of automobile passenger restraints and bicycle helmets). • Since successful primary prevention helps avoid the suffering, cost and burden associated with disease, it is typically considered the most cost- effective form of health care.
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Secondary Prevention • identify and treat asymptomatic persons who have already developed risk factors or preclinical disease but in whom the condition is not clinically apparent. – Screening for disease that has a significant latency period such as hyperlipidemia, hypertension, breast and prostate cancer.) • With early case finding, the natural history of disease can often be altered to maximize well- being and minimize suffering. • This approach is amied to prevent mortality or
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This note was uploaded on 02/21/2010 for the course PH 150A taught by Professor Adams during the Spring '08 term at University of California, Berkeley.

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PH150a_Feb19_MidTerm1Review - PH 150A Spring 2010 Midterm...

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