#2 NS 160 Memembrane & Taste Receptors

#2 NS 160 Memembrane & Taste Receptors - Importance...

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Unformatted text preview: Importance of nutrient sensing Nutrient sensing on the cellular level Nutrient sensing on the organismal level Nutrient sensing and the (epi)genome Importance of Nutrient sensing-on the cellular level- Total Nutrient availability: anabolism vs catabolism cell growth vs autophagy cell division vs quiescence Type of nutrient available/required: expression of speciFc transporters and enzymes Importance of Nutrient sensing-on the cellular level- Coordinate digestion and absorption Nutrient Storage vs Release Regulate hunger/satiety Importance of Nutrient sensing-on the organismal level- Regulate energy expenditure Regulate reproduction Taste/Smell Perception and Locomotion toward Food Source Epigenetic adaptation Importance of Nutrient sensing-on the organismal level- Which cell types & tissues facilitate nutrient sensing? GI Tract Brain Liver Adipocytes Many others Mechanisms of Nutrient Sensing (lectures 2-8) membrane receptors (AA) metabolic Fuxes (AMP/ATP) translational control (AA) mRNA stability (iron) protein trafcking (sterols) nuclear receptors (fatty acids) Hypothalamic control of feeding Endocrine control of feeding Epigenetic effects of nutrients Circadian regulation of metabolism Sensing of Amino Acids on the plasma membrane Cellular Nutrient Sensing Part I: Membrane receptors for nutrients Lysine crystals Variations in protein intake Fasting/Muscle protein breakdown AA SENSING Causes of perturbations in plasma AA levels Whitney et al, Understanding normal and clinical nutrition, 6th edition Structural considerations Show selectivity for essential -amino and -carboxylate groups Preferentially recognize the natural L-isomers rather than the D-isomers Have limited selectivity for AA side chain AA SENSING A Priori Considerations Concentration considerations Respond to AAs in the biologically relevant concentration range Respond equally to 50% changes in the concentrations of all amino acids and, thus, show the greatest sensitivities to AAs present at the lowest concentrations AA SENSING A Priori Considerations...
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#2 NS 160 Memembrane & Taste Receptors - Importance...

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