lecture%206%20trees%20B

lecture%206%20trees%20B - IV How to build a phylogenetic...

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10/15/09 1 IV. How to build a phylogenetic tree A. Measure as many traits as possible in the group of organisms When character states all agree – building a tree is easy Example – human, chimpanzee, earthworm All 3 share some traits bilaterally symmetrical multicellular mobile digestive track tube humans chimps earthworms Humans and chimps share lots of characters that earthworm doesn’t backbone 4 limbs endoskeleton lungs humans chimps earthworms Virtually no traits that worms share with humans but not chimps, or worms share with chimps but not humans human chimp worm Clear that humans and chimps share a common ancestor not shared with worm BUT – building a phylogenetic tree is never, ever that easy Characters never always agree – some characters tell one story other characters tell a different story
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10/15/09 2 Example – birds, bats, dogs. Which tree is right? birds bats dogs birds bats dogs Birds and bats look a lot alike, live alike But we know bats and dogs are mammals,
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