Lab Report - Chemical Composition of Cells Prepared for...

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Chemical Composition of Cells Prepared for: Prof. Roderick Wilson By Jennifer Edwards September 23, 2009
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Introduction The 4 basic macromolecules are Carbohydrates, lipids, protein and nucleic acids. Carbohydrates are the most abundant of the four major classes of biomolecules. They fill numerous roles in living things, such as the storage and transport of energy such as starch, glycogen and structural components such as cellulose in plants and chitin. Monosaccharides or simple sugars are the monomers that make up carbohydrates. Two monosaccharides bonded together are called disaccharides. Disaccharide is a carbohydrate formed when two monosaccharides undergo a condensation reaction which involves the elimination of a small molecule, such as water, from the functional groups only. Like monosaccharides, disaccharides also dissolve in water, taste sweet and are called sugars. I did two experiments that will test for the sugars and the starches for carbohydrates. The first experiment is the Benedict test and that will detect a monosaccharide or disaccharides only if the sugar has exposed aldehyde or ketone group. The Benedict reagent is blue and if it reacts with a sugar it will turn green yellow or orange.
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The second experiment is Lugol test which is used for starch, since starch will not react with Benedict test. Lugol reagent is brownish but if it reacts with starch a black precipitate is formed. Lipids are a broad group of naturally-occurring molecules which includes fats, waxes, sterols, The main biological functions of lipids include energy storage, as structural components of cell membranes, and as important signaling molecules. Lipids may be broadly defined as hydrophobic or amphiphilic small molecules; the amphiphilic nature of some lipids allows them to form structures such as vesicles, liposomes, or membranes in an aqueous environment. Biological lipids originate entirely or in part from two distinct types of biochemical subunits ketoacyl and isoprene groups. I did and experiment called the Sudan IV which is used to detect lipids. The Sudan IV experiment is an watery solution Sudan will mix evenly throughout, but if there are lipids present the Sudan which is hydrophobic will dissolve
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with lipids forming a red lipid layer over a clear water layer. Proteins are organic compounds
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Lab Report - Chemical Composition of Cells Prepared for...

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