2-12-10AmylasePlants

2-12-10AmylasePlants - BIOL13100 Biology II Development...

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BIOL13100 Biology II: Development, Structure, and Function of Organisms February 12, 2010 Dr. Nancy Pelaez Lilly G-224 [email protected]
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2 100 2 100 1 7.4 Na mM K mM Cl mM Ca mM pH + + - + 2 100 10 10 100 7.2 K mM Na mM Cl mM Ca nM pH + + - + Physical Principles: Animal Cells
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Animal cells use the energy stored in the sodium gradient to do other work; for example, to move water into a compartment by establishing a very negative osmotic potential or to transport glucose into the cell against its concentration gradient by secondary active transport.
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Epithelial cell layers
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Transporters and pumps
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Plant cells use the energy stored in the proton (H + ) gradient to do work; for example, to move water into root hair cells. Physical Principles: Plant Cells
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ATP ADP H + A root hair cell, showing the H + ATPase, the plant analog of the animal Na-K ATPase. - V m K + o = 0.5mM K + i = 100mM H + Cl - H 2 O Learn about PUMPS, secondary active transport, and gated CHANNELS. Membrane proteins regulate transport processes in plant and animal cells, where Flux= k C.
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However, in the root hair, water isn’t at equilibrium. Water is forced out by the turgor pressure toward the center of the root, so the turgor pressure is somewhat less than 4 atm. H 2 O H 2 O
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Figure 37-10 Xylem tissue can act as a capillary tube. Air Water Meniscus Adhesion Surface tension Cohesion Capillarity results from three forces. Water molecules at the surface are pulled down by hydrogen bonds below (resulting in meniscus); molecules below are pulled up Water molecules adhere to walls of tube Water molecules cohere to each other H-bonds: electrical forces between partially negative atoms (H or N) and a partially positive H atom that has a polar covalent bond with an atom that is partially negative (O or N – in this case O). Some water forces cost plant cells no energy
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r 1 r 2 Capillarity : the negative pressure produced at the air- water surface is inversely proportional to the radius of curvature of the meniscus. Ψ p = -2T/r, where r is the radius of curvature and T is the surface tension of water. T= 7.3 * 10 -8 MPa m
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Figure 37-11 Evaporation THE COHESION-TENSION THEORY: Water tension is transmitted by cohesion (hydrogen bonding) 1. Inside a leaf, the area not occupied by cells is filled with moist air. Water diffuses from the inside of the leaf to the atmosphere. Leaf cross section
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2-12-10AmylasePlants - BIOL13100 Biology II Development...

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