fulltext - F orce Control: A Bird's E y e V i e w J oris De...

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Force Control: A Bird's Eye View Joris De Schutter 1, Herman Bruyninckx 1, Wen-Hong Zhu 1, and Mark W. Spong 2 1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium 2 Coordinated Science Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA This chapter summarizes the major conclusions of twenty years of research in robot force control, points out remaining problems, and introduces issues that need more attention. By looking at force control from a distance, a lot of common features among different control approaches are revealed; this allows us to put force control into a broader (e.g. differential-geometric) context. The chapter starts with the basics of force control at an introductory level, by focusing at one or two degrees of freedom. Then the problems associated with the extension to the multidimensional case are described in a differential- geometric context. Finally, robustness and adaptive control are discussed. 1. Introduction The purpose of force control could be quite diverse, such as applying a con- trolled force needed for a manufacturing process (e.g. deburring or grinding), pushing an external object using a controlled force, or dealing with geometric uncertainty by establishing controlled contacts (e.g. in assembly). This chap- ter summarizes the major conclusions of twenty years of research in robot force control, points out remaining problems, and introduces issues that, in the authors' opinions, need more attention. Rather than discussing details of individual force control implementa- tions, the idea is to step back a little bit, and look at force control from a distance. This reveals a lot of simi][arities among different control approaches, and allows us to put force control into a broader (e.g. differential-geometric) context. In order to achieve a hig:h information density this text works with short, explicit statements which are briefly commented, but not proven. Some of these statements are well known and sometimes even trivial, some others reflect the personal opinion and experience of the authors; they may not be generally accepted, or at least require further investigation. Nevertheless we believe this collection of statements represents a useful background for future research in force control. This chapter is organized as follows: Section 2. presents the basics of force control at an introductory level, by focusing at one or two degrees of freedom. Section 3. describes in a general differential-geometric context the problems associated with the, extension to the multi-dimensional case.
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2 J. De Schutter et al. Section 4. discusses robustness and adaptive control. Finally, Section 5. points at future research directions. 2. Basics of Force Control 2.1 Basic Approaches The two most common basic approaches to force control are Hybrid force/pos- ition control (hereafter called Hybrid control), and Impedance control. Both approaches can be implemented in many different ways, as discussed later in this section. Hybrid control [16, 12] is based on the decomposition of the
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