chapter3-1

chapter3-1 - Chapter 3 Biological Molecules Besides water...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 3: Biological Molecules Besides water, most biologically related molecules contain carbon.---Organic molecules are molecules containing carbon. Chemists define organic molecules as those that have a carbon skeleton and contain some hydrogen Exceptions: All carbon molecules, graphite, diamonds, coal Carbon dioxide Carbon monoxide Carbon atoms are the most versatile building blocks of molecules Carbon has a valence of 4 so are able to form many bonds Can form 4 single covalent bonds or 2 double covalent bonds Can bind to 2, 3, or 4 other atoms. Organic molecules are versatile (are of different types performing different functions in living organisms) because they have functional groups attached to them (see table 3-1)---Functional groups are small characteristic groups of atoms which are bonded to the carbon skeleton of organic molecules.-Determine the characteristics and chemical reactivity of organic molecules Functional groups: • Have specific chemical and physical properties. • Are regions of organic molecules which are frequently chemically reactive. • Behave consistently from one organic molecule to another. • Can determine the chemical properties of the organic molecule in which they are located. 1) Hydrogen Group (-H)---Hydrogen group is a functional group of a hydrogen atom bonded to a carbon atom (of the carbon skeleton).-Is either a polar group or a non-polar group depending on the atom to which the hydrogen is attached.-Involved in condensation (dehydration) and hydrolysis reactions 2) Hydroxyl Group (-OH)---Hydroxyl group is a functional group of a hydrogen atom bonded to an oxygen atom which is bonded to a carbon atom (of the carbon skeleton).-Is a polar group-Involved in condensation (dehydration) and hydrolysis reactions O H H O HO OH HO OH OH HO Dehydration synthesis 3)Carboxyl Group (-COOH)---Carboxyl group is a functional group in which a carbon atom is double bonded to an oxygen atom (like a carbonyl) and is also single bonded to the oxygen atom of a hydroxyl group.-Since this group can donate a proton, it is an acid-Involved in peptide bonds 4)Amino Groups (-NH2)---Amino groups are functional groups in which two hydrogen atoms are bonded to a nitrogen atom which is bonded to a carbon atom (of the carbon skeleton).-Acts as a weak base (similar to ammonia)-Involved in peptide bonds amino acid amino group amino group carboxyl group amino acid carboxyl group Peptide bond joining two amino acids 5)Phosphate Groups (-PO 4 )---Phosphate group is a functional group which is the dissociated form of phosphoric acid (H 3 PO 4 ) 5)Phosphate Groups (-PO 4 )-Acts as an acid because of the ability to donate protons.-Links nucleotides-Organic bases of DNA-Important in cellular energy storage and energy transfer....
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chapter3-1 - Chapter 3 Biological Molecules Besides water...

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