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Unformatted text preview: Leather & Fur Chapter 7 Chapter Leather & Fur The Leather Industry The Highly specialized and time-consuming 8-16 mos before manufacturer Method, textures, finishes, color By-product of meatpacking industry Not target of environmentalists Few animals are raised for their hides History & Development History Ancient Egypt Ancient Leather thong sandals From clothing to armor North American Indian tribes Tanning deer skins for clothing, shelter, Tanning shoes shoes Plymouth, MA Experience Miller Commercial tannery in American colonies Peter Minuet horse driven stone mill Samuel Parker, 1809 split steer hides 25x faster than human hand 25x Lighter and supple leather Stir hides and skins, soak, dehair, Stir deflesh, split, emboss, chemicals deflesh, Organization & Operation Organization 18706,600 small tanneries in U.S. Today appx 340 large tanneries Northeast dominates (66 in NYC), Northeast Massachusetts, Texas, California, Wisconsin Wisconsin Types of Tanneries Types Regular Regular Purchase and process skins and hides and sell Purchase leather as their finished product leather Contracted Process hides and skins to specifications of Process converter, but not involved in final sale of leather converter, Converters Purchase skins and hides Commission contract tanneries to process Sell finished product to manufacturers Categories of Leather Categories Almost all leather comes from cattle Nine categories of leather Cattle Cattle Equine Exotic Exotic Cattle Goat & Kid Sheep & Lamb Equine Buffalo Pig & Hog Deer Kangaroo & Wallaby Exotic Cattle Hides from steer, cow, bull, kips/kipskin Shoes, outsoles, uppers, insoles, counters, Shoes, welts, heels welts, Travel bags, gloves, automobile upholstery, Travel furniture, decoration, handbags, purses, wallets, belts wallets, Saddles, footballs, volleyballs, basketballs Equine Equine Horse, colt, ass, mule, zebra Shoe soles and uppers, luggage, gloves, Shoe garments, belts garments, Aviator’s clothing, baseball covers and mitts Cordovan leather, extremely durable and extremely sturdy shoe uppers sturdy “pony skin” is stenciled calfskin, more pliable than real pony skin that comes from wild horses in Poland and Russia wild Exotic Exotic Aquatic Frog, seal, shark, walrus, sting ray Land Camel, elephant, ostrich Reptile Alligator, crocodile, lizard, snake Sustainable use is a policy by an environmental program that encourages landowners to preserve alligator eggs and habitats in return for the right to use a percentage of grown animals use Classification of Pelts Classification Skins < 15 Lbs Calves, goats, pigs, sheep, deer Kips 15-25 Lbs Young horses and cattle Hides > 25 Lbs Cattle, oxen, buffalo, horse skin Pelt Fur/hair is still attached Splitting- process that levels the overall thickness of pelts. Machine slices off the underneath or flesh layer flesh If pelt or split is thick enough, split can be further If processed for product usage processed Leather Processing Leather Tanning is the process of transforming animal pelts into leather animal 3-6 mos needed to tan hides for sole leather and 3-6 saddlery Less time required for tanning kips and skins, Less more tedious process and more expensive more Tanning process involves minerals, Tanning vegetable materials, oils, and chemicals (and
combination of aforementioned) combination Minerals Vegetable Materials
Ancient method Tannic acids naturally Occurring in bark, wood, nuts, Tree shrubs, tea leaves Cattle Alum Chrome Salts Ancient Egypt Writing paper Rarely used today -2/3 of all -Leather produced in U.S. -Rapid, takes hours -washable Oil
-Fish oil -one of oldest -Cleaned by Sponging. -Resistant to Moisture. -slowest method -labor intensive Rarely in U.S. Chemicals
Most widely Used -quickest -easily dyed Soft, pliable Gloves, jackets Finishes Formaldehyde washable chamois Doeskin buckskin -dye -oils & fats -sponging -stenciling -spraying -tie dyeing -matte -pearl -suede -patent -metallic Merchandising & Marketing Merchandising Individual tanners are not known by name to the Individual public eye NOR are Leather producers named in retail stores or in leather manufacturers’ advertising advertising Leather Industries of America LIA Semiannual color seminars, Hide Training School, Semiannual student design award student Trade Shows Semaine du Cuir, Paris, September Hong Kong International Leather Fair, June Leather Tanners’ Apparel & Garment Show TAG, NYC, October NYC, Trends in Leather Trends Enlarging market opportunities Increased competition from synthetics Increased foreign trade The versatility of leather is a hit as a fashion force for sportswear and on the Red Carpet The Fur Industry The By the Middle Ages fur was associated with ones wealth and status Italian cardinals ermine purity English power In 1900, the Chilean government backed a loan with chinchilla skins. History & Development History Fur trading posts in North America Fur St. Louis, Chicago, Detroit, St. Paul, Spokane Fur was virtually the currency of N.A. In America, beaver was the most sought after fur In beaver at the turn of the 18th century. at J.J. Astor owed his fortune to the trade Beaver becomes scarce, Lincoln wears a silk hat Beaver to his inauguration to The demand for beaver hats ceases overnight Demand for fur remains strong among women Prince Edward Island, Canada starts farming furs in 1880 Today’s market reflects the most varied list Today’s of popular furs ever: of 1-Mink 2-sable, fox, and beaver “Contemporary” furs, a new category, include raccoon, fox, beaver, coyote, muskrat, tanuki (Japanese raccoon) and nutria Animal Rights Groups Animal People for Ethical Treatment of Animals People PETA PETA PETA has staged a Friends of Animals variety of protests and pickets Animal Liberation Front
Other groups have raided fur farms releasing the animals, or destroying pedigree documents
Still others have confronted consumers, throwing paint on women wearing fur coats Fur Industry Response Fur
• Fur farms do not Fur remove animals from remove the wild the • 95% of fur used comes from humane trapping from • Real fur does not use Real non-renewable petroleum-based products that pollute the environment environment Faux furs have grown in both quality Faux and hence popularity recently. and Real vs. Faux Real Manufacture of fake fur also releases Manufacture harmful chemicals into the atmosphere harmful Oregon State University Environmental Consequences of Textile Environmental Marketing study Marketing Broad range of textiles to be compatible with Broad environment (nonpolluting in obtaining, processing, fabrication, maintenance, disposal, 100% biodegradable, long lasting, produce minimal waste) minimal Farmed and wild fur outperformed all other textiles in Farmed composite scoring across all environmental criteria composite Stages of Fur Production 1) Trappers, farmers, ranchers producing 1) pelts and selling them at auction pelts 2) Fur-processing companies 3) Manufacturers of fur products Pelt Production Pelt Pelt is the skin of a fur-bearing animal Trappers are the primary source of wild Trappers animal pelts animal The majority of furs come from farms or The ranches ranches Raised under controlled conditions Bred selectively Pelts are sold at auctions, much like they Pelts were in the 13th c. were bundles Processing & Manufacturing Processing Manufacturers contract with fur dressing and fur Manufacturers dyeing firms to process them dyeing Processing steps (dressing & dyeing) Processing usually performed by hand, allowing the worker to deal with each usually individual pelt’s color, quality and peculiarities individual Innovations in 1989 by Fendi All fur can be reversible Results- lightweight, minimal bulk, fur that moves easily with the wearer Manufacturers are small and independently owned Not mass or large scaled production Matching the Skins Matching Skin-on-skin is the method in which each skin is placed and sewn next to the subsequent skins to form a garment form Letting-out is the method to elongate the fur to the full length, eliminating horizontal joining marks by cutting each skin vertically down the center of the dark stripe and then cutting the strips diagonally 1/8” wide wide Split-skin is the method of slicing the skin down the Split-skin center to create two pieces of fur center Whole-skin is when the skin is merely cut to fit the pattern pattern Retail Distribution of Furs 1,500 stores nationwide 85% small retailers, family-owned businesses Most common is a leased department (situated Most leased in store but run by independent merchant) in Maximillian at Bloomingdale’s Consignment selling, iis when a fur s manufacturer supplies merchandise to a retail store on “loan” Note that retailers have both off the rack furs Note and maintain their own pelts for custom work and Merchandising & Marketing Merchandising Fur Information Council of America (FICA) represent retailers and manufacturers American Legend is a mink ranchers association American combining two major mink producing groups: Emba Mink Breeders Association (EMBA) Emba Great Lakes Mink Association (GLMA) International fur fairs attended by designers, International manufacturers, retailers, import/exporters, wholesalers, and the media Tokyo, Hong Kong, Milan, Moscow, Frankfurt and Tokyo, Montreal Montreal Fur Labels Product Act of 1952 1952
English name of animal Country of origin Type of processing to which pelt was Type subjected subjected Whether or not parts have been cut from Whether less desirable paw or tail sections less Trends in Fur Industry Trends
1. Renewed fashion interest in furs 2. Increased foreign trade allowed for exports Increased of high quality U.S. pelts of 1. Legislation protects endangered species to Legislation the detriment of non-endangered species the 2. New channels of distribution widen the New audience: audience: Mail order Hotel, armory and arena sales ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/21/2010 for the course HUEC 2045 taught by Professor V during the Spring '06 term at LSU.
- Spring '06