Environmental Hazards before test 3

Environmental Hazards before test 3 - Severe weather...

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Severe weather Hurricane/Cylcones Solar Radiation Majority of solar radiation is at equator Heat transfer to the polar region Oceanic Heat transport Oceanic heat is moved from low lat to high lat. via thermohaline circulation- the oceanic conveyor belt Salty ocean water becomes more dense than water below it as H2O is evap causing sinking Poleward Transfer of heat and Moisture Hadley cell o Convection loops transfer sensible heat from warm tropical regions to subtropical regions o Convectional precipitation in equatorial region o Trade winds(easterly) from 0-30 o Westerly from 30-60 Rossby waves o Transport heat in mid and high-lat. regions via mixing of cold and warm air masses, or tongues- mid lat. cyclones o When 60 degree line in Hadley cell circulation is wavy and allows for mixing across mid level lat’s. Types of airmasses mP,mT, cP,cT,cA Temp and atmospheric pressure temp and atmo pressure are not necessarily directly related low pressure systems occur at both high and low lat throughout the year precipitation occurs as a result of cyclonic activity- i.e. Mid-Lat and tropical cyclones Coriolis Effect and cyclonic activity coming from the north to eq. winds deflected to the right coming from south to eq. winds deflected to the left Traveling Cyclones 3 types o Mid-L:at (inc. Nor’easters), arctic and Antarctic wave cyclones (extratropical cyclones) o Tropical cyclone o Tornado Formation of a polar wave cyclone (mid-lat cyclone) Typically forms at the contact between two large anticyclones at the polar front One air mass is cold and dry and the other is warm and moist A wave cyclone forms in the low pressure trough between the two highs Fronts Boundary between air masses is called a front
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Fronts are named by the incading air mass A developing cycle typically has a preceding warm front, follwed by a faster moving cold front When they catch up it becomes occluded Cold front o Cold dense air mass invades and area occupied by relatively warmer air. The warmer air is abruptly lifted by the denser cold air, resulting in rapid adiabatic cooling of the warm air. Cloud formation is rapid. Preciptaton or T storms may form Warm front o A warm air mass moves into an area of relatively cooler air. As the warm air mass moves in. it rises above the invaded cooler air. The incading warmer air cools as it rises gradually over a long ramp of cooler air. Cloud formation may occur Occuded front o Formed whena fast moving cold front overtakes a warm front forcing the warm air mass upward Why is precip only accociated with Low pressure? Air tends to sink near high pressure (anticyclones) centers. Tis inhibits cloud formation and precip. this is wich high pressure systems tend to bring bright, sunny days with calm weather Thunderstorms: require that warm, moist air be elevated i.e. air masses coming in from the gulf of Mexico 24- hr. precip. events Flash flood alley has 6-12
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Environmental Hazards before test 3 - Severe weather...

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