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Environmental Hazards Before Test 1

Environmental Hazards Before Test 1 - FINAL EXAM DEC 9th...

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FINAL EXAM DEC 9 th . 2-5PM Effects of Selected Hazards in The US Flood 86 deaths Tornado and wind 218 deaths Hurricane 55 Eastern US higher risk for hurrican Western Hazards mostly volcanic Tornados mostly central Data Scientists Prediction review group Regional/ Local officials Public Unique challenges o Preparing for events of Natural Hazards o Predictions Gustav Sept. 1, 2008 Coordination of relief effors- local, state, federal Provision of Basic Necesities: Food, Shelter (developing countries don’t have these aid luxuries) Politicians stoped campaigning and focus more on this Hurricane Pacific Hurricanes Hurricane Jimena right now Sept 1 st Population density is a large factor in how these storms are perceived Energy Souces of Natural Disasters Internal External (Solar) Natural Hazards Events- are generated when Earths natural geophysical processes result in Concentraated energy and energy release Four primary energy sources o The impacted of extraterrestrial bodies o Gravity Landslides tides o Sun Sun is composed largely of H and He Very little of radiant energy produced by the sun does make its way to the earth surface Of the radiation that comes from the sun to the Earth produces 5300x greater heat flow than internal Some is reflected, drive hydro cycle, converted to heat, wind, photosynthesis
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o Earths internal Heat Radioactive Decay= cause of earths internal energy source Internal energy and geologic processes that result in nat. hazards Earthquakes don’t have prediction ability Volcanos have some signs that allow prydicitons Earths interior Natural hazards primary processes are in Crust and Mantel Continental crust density 2.7 g/cm^3 Oceanic Crust density 3.0 g/cm^3 Mantel 3.2 g/cm^3 Isostasy principle o Applies to buoyancy principle o Low density mountain ranges and continents flow on denser mantle o Same as iceberg Earth Serface 71% ocean 29% land continental shelf = 6% of the earths surface ( area that would be exposed if iceage) Plate techtonics- drive volcanos and earthquakes Pacific and Indian Ocean have largest number or quakes per globe Subduction shown by triangles Spreading shown by zigzags Oceanic plates dives under continental plates Plate boundaries o Converge, transform (slide), divergent o Divergent most benign Effusive volcanos- less explosive Mid oceanic ridges Iceland Red Sea East African Rift vally These areas created by upwelling of magma Expanded volumes of war rock along these centers have a relatively hich heat content and less rigid than rocks found at other plate boundary types Extention- moving away from each other Midoceanic ridges- central ridge structures associate with sea-floor spreading Abyssal plans- larg flat expanses with and average depth of 5000m When magma cools it forms Basaltic Rock Use of magnetic rocks and when the mag field changes to date Each successive age or rocks should have same magnetic field Dated by Paleomagnitism
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