L11 Ch08 MajMinElements - Proper Usage Most of the graphics...

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Proper Usage Most of the graphics in these slides, used to illustrate lectures in GEO 426P, are teaching aids provided by John Winter, the author of An Introduction to Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology , and modified by me to suit our purposes. You may download these slides to review on- screen, and may print out a single copy for study, but it would be inappropriate to further disseminate them or the images they contain.
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Chemical Petrology I: Major and Minor Elements
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Major elements: usually greater than 1% SiO Al O FeO* MgO CaO Na O K O Element Wt % Oxide Atom % O 60.8 Si 59.3 21.2 Al 15.3 6.4 Fe 7.5 2.2 Ca 6.9 2.6 Mg 4.5 2.4 Na 2.8 1.9 Abundance of elements in the Earth’s crust Minor elements: usually 0.1 - 1% TiO MnO P O CO Trace elements: usually < 0.1% everything else
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Modern analytical techniques allow rapid measurement of elemental concentrations with: high sensitivity (down to ppms) high spatial resolution (10s of µm) high accuracy (easily 1% relative) Analytical Techniques for Major, Minor and Trace Elements
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LA-ICP-MS "Laser Ablation – Inductively Coupled Plasma – Mass Spectrometry" EPMA "Electron-Probe Micro-Analysis" Analytical Techniques for Major, Minor and Trace Elements
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Electron beam –> X-rays λ and E characteristic of element intensity proportional to amount EPMA "Electron-Probe Micro-Analysis" sensitivity to 0.01s wt % (100's ppm) accurate to ~0.5-1% relative 5-10 µm regions minutes per analysis
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sensitivity to 100's ppb accurate to ~5-10% relative 20-100 µm regions minutes per analysis LA-ICP-MS "Laser Ablation – Inductively Coupled Plasma – Mass Spectrometry" Laser vaporization –> Plasma ionization mass characteristic of element number of ions proportional to amount
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sensitivity to 0.01s wt % (100's ppm) accurate to ~0.5-1% relative 5-10 µm regions minutes per analysis sensitivity to 100's ppb accurate to ~5-10% relative 20-100 µm regions minutes per analysis Analytical Techniques for
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